1.ARTICULAR SURFACE OF HIP JOINT:
The Hip Joint Is A Ball And Socket Synovial Joint, Formed By An Articulation Between The Pelvic Acetabulum And The Head Of The Femur. It forms a connection from the lower limb to the pelvic girdle, and thus is designed for stability and weight-bearing – rather than a large range of movement.
The acetabulum is a cup-like depression located on the inferolateral aspect of the pelvis. Its cavity is deepened by the presence of a fibrocartilaginous collar – the acetabular labrum. The head of femur is hemispherical, and fits completely into the concavity of the acetabulum.
Continue reading “ANATOMY 2MARKS-PART 4”
The oesophagus is a fibromuscular tube, approximately 25cm in length, that transports food from the pharynx to the stomach. It originates at the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage, C6, extending to the cardiac orifice of the stomach.
It descends downward into the superior mediastinum of the thorax. Here, it is situated between the trachea and the vertebral bodies T1 to T4. It then enters the abdomen by piercing the muscular right crus of the diaphragm, through the oesophageal hiatus (simply, a hole in the diaphragm) at the T10 level.
Continue reading “ANATOMY 2MARKS- PART 3”
1. LAYERS OF HEART
.The heart wall is comprised of three layers, the epicardium (outer), myocardium (middle), and endocardium (inner). These tissue layers are highly specialized and perform different functions.
The epicardium is a thin layer of elastic connective tissue and fat that serves as an additional layer of protection from trauma or friction for the heart under the pericardium.
The middle layer of the heart wall is the myocardium—the muscle tissue of the heart and the thickest layer of the heart wall. It is composed of cardiac muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes.
The inner layer of the heart wall is the endocardium, composed of endothelial cells that provide a smooth, elastic, non-adherent surface for blood collection and pumping.
Continue reading “ANATOMY 2MARKS- PART -2”
The Joints In The Human Body Contains Synovial Fluid. This Fluid Is A Thick Liquid That Lubricates The Joint And Allows For Ease Of Movement. In Joint Diseases Like Arthritis, The Synovium Of The Joint Is The Main Place Where Inflammation Occurs. Limited Mobility In The Joint, Or Pain And Stiffness With Movement, Are Often The First Signs Of Joint Disorders. Synovial Fluid And Joint Inflammation Are More Common We Grow Older. Continue reading “ANATOMY: 2MARKS PART-1”