PAINFUL ARC SYNDROME:
- Painful arc syndrome or impingement syndrome is a very common shoulder problem. Symptoms occur when you raise your arm overhead or lift your arm to the side away from your body.
Continue reading “ORTHOPEDICS-2MARKS-PART-1”
- Is a term that defines a group of muscle diseases involving inflammation and degeneration of skeletal muscle tissues.
- Inclusion body myositis (IBM) mainly affects individuals over the age of 50.
- The cause of IBM remains unknown, but is thought to be a form of autoimmune disease, where the immune system responds in a harmful manner to the rest of the body.
Continue reading “NEUROLOGY-2MARKS-PART-6”
- Swallowing disorders – defined as difficulty in passing food or liquid from the mouth to the stomach – occur in all age groups, but especially in the elderly.
- The disorders can occur at any stage of the normal swallowing process, in which food and liquid move from the mouth, through the pharynx, into the esophagus, and finally, into the stomach.
- The disorders are common in individuals with degenerative neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post-polio syndrome, myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease.
Continue reading “NEUROLOGY-2MARKS-PART-5”
- Distinctive, large, mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages) with a foamlike cytoplasm, and also poorly staining saclike structures resulting from degeneration of such cells, observed characteristically in leprous inflammatory reactions.
- Indistinct staining results from numerous, fairly closely packed leprosy bacilli, which are acid fast and resistant to staining by ordinary methods.
Continue reading “PATHOLOGY-2MARKS-PART-2”
- Cerebellar Degeneration is a disease process in which neurons in the cerebellum – the area of the brain that controls muscle coordination and balance – deteriorate and die.
- Diseases that cause cerebellar degeneration can also involve areas of the brain that connect the cerebellum to the spinal cord, such as the medulla oblongata, the cerebral cortex, and the brain stem.
- Cerebellar degeneration is most often the result of inherited genetic mutations that alter the normal production of specific proteins that are necessary for the survival of neurons.
Continue reading “NEUROLOGY-2MARKS-PART-4”
- The death of living cells or tissues. Necrosis can be due, for example, to ischemia (lack of blood flow). From the Greek “nekros” (dead body).
- Aseptic necrosis necrosis without infection or inflammation.
- Balser’s fatty necrosis gangrenous pancreatitis with omental bursitis and disseminated patches of necrosis of fatty tissues.
- Acute tubular necrosis acute renal failure with mild to severe damage or necrosis of tubule cells, usually secondary to either nephrotoxicity, ischemia after major surgery, trauma , severe hypovolemia, sepsis, or burns.
- Central necrosis necrosis affecting the central portion of an affected bone, cell, or lobule of the liver.
Continue reading “PATHOLOGY-2MARKS-PART-1”
CENTRE OF GRAVITY:
- Center of gravity is an imaginary balancing point where the body weight can be assumed to be concentrated and equally distributed.
- Its symbol is COG or CG. The centre of gravity (COG) of the human body is a hypothetical point around which the force of gravity appears to act.
- In the anatomical position, the COG lies approximately anterior to the second sacral vertebra.
Continue reading “BIOMECHANICS-2 MARKS-PART-1”
- Is a disorder characterized by tingling, numbness, and burning pain in the outer side of the thigh. The disorder is caused by compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve as it exits the pelvis.
- It more commonly occurs in men than women, and is generally found in middle-aged or overweight individuals.
- People with the disorder frequently report that it appears or worsens after walking or standing.
- The skin is often sensitive to touch. Meralgia paresthetica is associated with clothing that is too tight, pregnancy, diabetes, and obesity.
Continue reading “NEUROLOGY-2MARKS-PART-3”
- AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a virus called HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).
- Neurological complications are common in HIV disease. The spectrum of neurological disorders is broad and involves the central nervous system, or CNS (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system, or PNS (nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, and related muscle).
Continue reading “NEUROLOGY-2 MARKS-PART-2”
Agraphia is an acquired neurological disorder causing a loss in the ability to communicate through writing, either due to some form of motor dysfunction or an inability to spell. The loss of writing ability may present with other language or neurological disorders.
Continue reading “NEUROLOGY-2MARKS- PART-1”