PILES OR HAEMORRHOIDS

Piles or haemorrhoids are among the most common ailments today, especially in the Western world. They are a varicose and often inflammed condition of the veins inside or just outside the rectum. In external piles there is a lot of pain, but not much bleeding. In case of internal piles there is discharge of dark blood. In some cases the veins burst and this results in what is known as bleeding piles.

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BIO MECHANICS- 2MARKS- PART-4

ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINTS:

  • The facet joints, (or zygapophysial joints, zygapophyseal, apophyseal, or Z-joints) are a set of synovial, plane joints between the articular processes of two adjacent vertebrae.
  • The Facet Joints, also known as the Zygapophyseal Joints, are located closer to the back of the spine, where they project above and below the vertebral arch.
  • These joints also allow for movement of the spine, as well as providing for stability of the overall structure.

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BIO MECHANICS- 2MARKS- PART-3

FIBRO CARTILAGE:

  • Fibrocartilaginous and hyaline joints, usually occurring in the midline. Examples in human anatomy would be the manubriosternal joint (between the manubrium and the sternum), intervertebral discs, and the pubic symphysis.
  • Fibrocartilage(fibrous) is a type of cartilage that contains fine collagen fibers arranged in layered arrays. In contrast to the very uniform appearance of hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage possesses a more open or spongey architecture with gaps between lacunae and collagen fiber bundles.

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BIO MECHANICS- 2MARKS- PART-2

DIARTHROSIS:

  • A synovial joint, also known as diarthrosis, joins bones with a fibrous joint capsule that is continuous with the periosteum of the joined bones, constitutes the outer boundary of a synovial cavity, and surrounds the bones’ articulating surfaces. The synovial cavity/joint is filled with synovial fluid.
  • Example: knee joint and most of the joints of the limbs.

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MICROBIOLOGY-2MARKS-PART-2

NAME CONTRIBUTIONS OF ANTON VON LEEUWENHOEK:

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek is another scientist who saw these cells soon after Hooke did. He made use of a microscope containing improved lenses that could magnify objects almost 300-fold, or 270x. Leeuwenhoek named these “animalcules,” which included protozoa and other unicellular organisms, like bacteria
  • Van Leeuwenhoek discovered “protozoa” – the single-celled organisms and he called them “animalcules”. He also improved the microscope and laid foundation for microbiology. He is often cited as the first microbiologist to study muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa and blood flow in capillaries.

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NEUROLOGY-2 MARKS- PART 7

POST-POLIO SYNDROME:

  • PPS is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus.
  • PPS is mainly characterized by new weakening in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection and in muscles that seemingly were unaffected.
  • Symptoms include slowly progressive muscle weakness, unaccustomed fatigue (both generalized and muscular), and, at times, muscle atrophy.
  • Pain from joint degeneration and increasing skeletal deformities such as scoliosis are common.

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