2MARKS: PART-3

BITOT’S SPOT DUE TO:

  • Bitot’s spots are an eye condition named by a Dr. Bitot in France in 1863. Caused by vitamin A deficiency, Bitot’s spots are tiny specks of keratin protein that flakes off the inside of the eyelid. A malfunction of the goblet cells leads of a deficiency of the protective mucus that carries away keratin and other debris and keeps the lenses clear.
  • Bitot’s spots are a condition of a continuum of eye complaints ranging from itchy eyes to blindness. Mild cases of vitamin A deficiency only cause minor irritation. More severe cases of vitamin A deficiency cause Bitot’s spots and xerophthalmia.

TETANY DUE TO :

  • Tetany or tetany seizure is a medical sign consisting of the involuntary contraction of muscles, which may be caused by disease or other conditions that increase the action potential frequency of muscle cells or the nerves that innervate them.
  • Tetany can be the result of an electrolyte imbalance. Most often, it’s a dramatically low calcium level, known as hypocalcemia. But, it can also be caused by magnesium deficiency or too little potassium. Having too much acid (acidosis) or too much alkali (alkalosis) in the body can also result in tetany.

FLUOROSIS :

  • Dental fluorosis (also termed mottled enamel) is an extremely common disorder, characterized by hypomineralization of tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excessive fluoride during enamel formation.
  • Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease caused by excessive accumulation of fluoride in the bones. In advanced cases, skeletal fluorosis causes pain and damage to bones and joints.

TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF IRON :

  • A protein called transferrin attaches to the iron and helps transport it throughout your body. Iron later passes to your bone marrow, where it is used to make hemoglobin and red blood cells, which circulate in your body and help supply oxygen to your organs and tissues.
  • The human body’s rate of iron absorption appears to respond to a variety of interdependent factors, including total iron stores, the extent to which the bone marrow is producing new red blood cells, the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood, and the oxygen content of the blood.

FUNCTION OF COPPER :

  • Copper is an essential trace mineral necessary for survival. Most of the copper in the body is found in the liver, brain, heart, kidneys and skeletal muscle. Copper helps with the formation of collagen, increases the absorption of iron and plays a role in energy production.
  • It helps your body make red blood cells and keeps nerve cells and your immune system healthy. It also helps form collagen, a key part of bones and connective tissue. Copper may also act as an antioxidant, reducing free radicals that can damage cells and DNA.

IMPORTANCE OF ZINC :

  • Zinc is an essential mineral that women require on a daily basis to stay healthy. Although zinc is needed in small amounts, a zinc deficiency can cause some serious and unpleasant side effects – like hair loss, problems with your sense of taste and smell or poor wound healing.
  • Zinc is a key mineral that cells use to metabolize nutrients. Immune function, DNA and protein production, and cell division are all related to zinc levels in the body. Zinc also enables the male body to produce testosterone.

WILSON’S DISEASE :

  • Wilson’s disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration and progressive lenticular degeneration, is a rare genetic disorder that causes copper poisoning in the body.
  • Wilson’s disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body. Symptoms are typically related to the brain and liver. … Wilson’s disease is an autosomal recessive condition due to a mutation in the Wilson disease protein (ATP7B) gene.
  • The liver filters extra copper and releases it into bile. In Wilson disease, the liver does not filter copper correctly and copper builds up in the liver, brain, eyes, and other organs.

NORMAL SERUM CHOLESTEROL LEVEL:

  • Total serum cholesterol consists of high-density lipoprotein, or HDL cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein, or LDL cholesterol; and triglycerides. Levels are reported in milligrams per deciliter of blood, or mg/dL.
  • Your cholesterol level is considered high if you have total cholesterol levels of 240 mg/dL or higher. It’s considered borderline when it’s between 200 and 239 mg/Dl
  • Elevated cholesterol levels are one of the risk factors for heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

SAFE LEVEL OF FLUORIDE IN WATER :

  • Fluoride is added to public water supplies at an average concentration of about 1 part per million (1 ppm) or 1 milligram per liter, or slightly below. Naturally occurring fluoride concentrations in surface waters depend on location but are generally low and usually do not exceed 0.3 ppm.

NAME THE BLOOD BUFFERS AND WHICH IS THE PREDOMINANT BUFFER SYSTEM:

  • The body’s chemical buffer system consists of three individual buffers: the carbonate/carbonic acid buffer, the phosphate buffer and the buffering of plasma proteins. While the third buffer is the most plentiful, the first is usually considered the most important since it is coupled to the respiratory system.
  • An important buffer system in the human body is the bicarbonate buffering system that keeps human blood in the right pH range. This buffer system is essential, because exercise produces carbon dioxide and lactic acid in muscles.

PEPTIDE HORMONES:

  • Peptide hormones and protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins. They have longer amino acid chain lengths than the former. These hormones have an effect on the endocrine system of animals and humans.

FEW PEPTIDE HORMONES:

  • Islet Amyloid Polypeptide
  • Anti-Müllerian hormone
  • Adiponectin
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  • Angiotensinogen
  • Antidiuretic hormone
  • Brain natriuretic peptide
  • Calcitonin
  • Gastric inhibitory polypeptide.

CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.

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