1.Synovial Fluid:

The Joints In The Human Body Contains Synovial Fluid. This Fluid Is A Thick Liquid That Lubricates The Joint And Allows For Ease Of Movement. In Joint Diseases Like Arthritis, The Synovium Of The Joint Is The Main Place Where Inflammation Occurs. Limited Mobility In The Joint, Or Pain And Stiffness With Movement, Are Often The First Signs Of Joint Disorders. Synovial Fluid And Joint Inflammation Are More Common We Grow Older.

2.Articular Cartilage:

Articular Cartilage Or Hyaline Cartilageas It Is Also Known Is A Very Smooth, Hard Material Which Lines The Ends Of Bones. It Is Made Up Of Protein Collagen And Its Purpose Is To Protect The Ends Of The Bone And Allow Smooth Movement Between The Surfaces Of Bones. In Addition Articular Cartilage Is Extravascular, Meaning That It Has No Direct Blood Supply. This Means That Once Injured It Is Extremely Slow To Heal.


3.Neuromuscular Junction: 2 Different Way Of Answers.

1.The Synapse Or Connection Between A Motor Neuron And A Skeletal Muscle Is Known As Neuromuscular Junction. Communication Happens Between The Neuron And Muscle Via Nerve Cells Due To This Communication Or Transmission Of Signal, The Muscle Is Able To Contract Or Relax.

2.A Motor Neuron Is Responsible For Causing A Skeletal Muscle To Contract, By Stimulating It. The Gap Or Space Present Between This Motor Neuron And The Skeletal Muscle Cell Is Called As A Synapse. This Synapse, Specifically Between The Skeletal Muscle Cell And Motor Neuron Is Called Neuromuscular Junction Or Myoneural.


4.Adductor Pollicis:

The Adductor Pollicis Is A Large Triangular Muscle Located In The Hand. Together With Other Muscles, It Is Part Of The Fleshy Mass In The First Web Space Of The Hand, Between The Thumb And Index Finger.

It Is Fan-Shaped, And Flat. It Is Involved In The Movement Of The Hand And Fingers. Its Specific Function Is To Move The Thumb Closer To The Palm Of The Hand. It Is Especially Useful In Gripping.

The Adductor Pollicis Is Nervated By The Deep Branch Of The Ulnar Nerve.

The Muscle Has Two Heads: The Oblique And Transverse.


5.Annular Ligaments:

A Ringlike Ligament Or Band Of Fibrous Tissue Encircling A Part:A:  Any Of The Transverse Bands Holding In Place The Extensor And Flexor Tendons Of The Wrist And Ankle

A Strong Band Of Fibers Surrounding The Head Of The Radius And Retaining It In The Radial Notch Of The Ulna—Called Also Orbicular Ligament.


6.Erb’s  Point:

A Landmark Of The Brachial Plexus On The Upper Trunk, Located About 1 Inch (2.5 Cm) Above The Clavicle At About The Level Of The Sixth Cervical Vertebra. The Point Is The Location Of An Angle Between The Posterolateral Border Of The Sternocleidomastoid Muscle And The Clavicle. Electrical Stimulation At Erb’s Point Causes Contractions Of The Biceps, Deltoid, And Other Arm Muscles.


 

7. Movements Of Shoulder Girdle:

 Sternoclavicular Joints

 Acromioclavicular

 Glenohumeral Joints

Scapulothoracic Joint

  1. Protraction: This Is Moving The Shoulder Blade (Scapula) Forwards, Away From The Rib Cage And Spine.
  2. Retraction: This Movement Pulls The Scapula Back Towards The Rib Cage.
  3. Elevation: This Movement Allow The Shoulder Girdle To Move Upwards As In Shrugging The Shoulders.
  4. Depression: This Brings A Reverse Of The Elevation Movement. The Pectoral Girdle And Entire Shoulder Downwards.
  5. Downward Rotation: This Is Rotating The Lower Scapula Towards The Rib Cage As In Moving The Arm Behind The Back.

8.Movements Of Thumb:

Flexion And Extension Of The Thumb

Abduction And Adduction Of The Thumb

Opposition And Reposition.


9.Police Man Tip Hand:

A Lesion Of The Upper Trunk Of The Brachial Plexus Results In A Condition Also Called “Waiter’s/Porter’s Tip Hand” In Which The Arm Tends To Lie Abducted In Medial Rotation Due To Paralysis Of Lateral Rotators And Abductors Of The Arm.

The Most Common Injury Is Severe Traction With The Arm In Abduction E.G. After A Motor Cycle Accident- Fall On Shoulder. Partial Paralysis May Also Result From Shoulder Dislocation. Direct Injury To The Brachial Plexus Can Result From A Stab Or Gunshot Wound.


 10. Structure Passing Under The Flexor Rectinaculum Of Hand:

The Ulnar Artery And Ulnar Nerve, And The Cutaneous Branches Of The Median And Ulnar Nerves, Pass On Top Of The Flexor Retinaculum. On The Radial Side Of The Retinaculum Is The Tendon Of The Flexor Carpi Radialis, Which Lies In The Groove On The Greater Multangular Between The Attachments Of The Ligament To The Bone.


CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA

PHYSIOTHERAPIST & FITNESS CONSULTANT

 

 

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