ANATOMY 2MARKS-PART 6

ORBICULARIS OCULI:

Origin:
Palpebral part: to the medial palpebral ligament and adjacent bone on the medial side of the orbit.
Orbital part: to a slip of bone adjacent to the orbit on the orbital process of the frontal bone, to the frontal process of the maxilla, and to the medial palpebral ligament between the two bony areas.
Insertion:
Palpebral part: into the skin of the eyelids, blending with levator palpebrae superioris and continuing on to the lateral palpebral raphe.
Orbital part: into the skin surrounding the orbit and blending with adjacent facial muscles
Action: Closes the eyelids
Innervation: Temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII)
Blood Supply: Branches from the ophthalmic artery

ULCER:

Stomach ulcers are painful sores that can be found in the stomach lining or small intestine. Stomach ulcers are the most visible sign of peptic ulcer disease. They occur when the thick layer of mucus that protects your stomach from digestive juices is reduced, thus enabling the digestive acids to eat away at the lining tissues of the stomach.

Certain factors and behaviors can put you at higher risk for developing stomach ulcers:

  • Smoking
  • Frequent use of steroids (such as those for treating asthma)
  • Hypercalcemia (overproduction of calcium)
  • Family history of stomach ulcers
  • Being over 50 years old
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol.

DUODENUM:

  • The duodenum, or the first part of the small intestine, connects to the stomach. The duodenum is about 10 in. (25 cm) long and curved, almost forming a circle.
  • It receives partially digested food (known as chyme) from the stomach and plays a vital role in the chemical digestion of chyme in preparation for absorption in the small intestine.


PERISTALSIS:

Peristalsis, involuntary movements of the longitudinal and circular muscles, primarily in the digestive tract but occasionally in other hollow tubes of the body, that occur in progressive wavelike contractions. Peristaltic waves occur in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The waves can be short, local reflexes or long, continuous contractions.


CONSTIPATION:

Constipation is defined medically as fewer than three stools per week and severe constipation as less than per week.

Some of the symptoms include:

  • Lower abdominal discomfort
  • A sense of incomplete evacuation (the feeling that you still have to “go”)
  • Straining to have a bowel movement
  • Hard or small stools
  • Rectal bleeding and/or anal fissures caused by hard stools

CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST

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