ANATOMY 2MARKS-PART 7

THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM:

  • The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain plays a central role in the control of most bodily functions, including awareness, movements, sensations, thoughts, speech, and memory. Some reflex movements can occur via spinal cord pathways without the participation of brain structures.
  • The spinal cord is connected to a section of the brain called the brainstem and runs through the spinal canal. Cranial nerves exit the brainstem.
  • Nerve roots exit the spinal cord to both sides of the body.
  • The spinal cord carries signals (messages) back and forth between the brain and the peripheral nerves.

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ANATOMY 2MARKS: PART 5

ANNULUS FIBROSUS

  • The annulus fibrosus is the tough circular exterior of the intervertebral disc that surrounds the soft inner core, the nucleus pulposus.
  • This outer portion is composed of a ring of ligament fibers that encases the inner core of the disc and securely connects the spinal vertebrae above and below the disc.

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ANATOMY 2MARKS-PART 6

ORBICULARIS OCULI:

Origin:
Palpebral part: to the medial palpebral ligament and adjacent bone on the medial side of the orbit.
Orbital part: to a slip of bone adjacent to the orbit on the orbital process of the frontal bone, to the frontal process of the maxilla, and to the medial palpebral ligament between the two bony areas.
Insertion:
Palpebral part: into the skin of the eyelids, blending with levator palpebrae superioris and continuing on to the lateral palpebral raphe.
Orbital part: into the skin surrounding the orbit and blending with adjacent facial muscles
Action: Closes the eyelids
Innervation: Temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII)
Blood Supply: Branches from the ophthalmic artery

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ANATOMY 2MARKS-PART 4

 

1.ARTICULAR SURFACE OF HIP JOINT:

The Hip Joint Is A Ball And Socket Synovial Joint, Formed By An Articulation Between The Pelvic Acetabulum And The Head Of The Femur. It forms a connection from the lower limb to the pelvic girdle, and thus is designed for stability and weight-bearing – rather than a large range of movement.

The acetabulum is a cup-like depression located on the inferolateral aspect of the pelvis. Its cavity is deepened by the presence of a fibrocartilaginous collar – the acetabular labrum. The head of femur is hemispherical, and fits completely into the concavity of the acetabulum.

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ANATOMY 2MARKS- PART 3

1.OESOPHAGUS:

The oesophagus is a fibromuscular tube, approximately 25cm in length, that transports food from the pharynx to the stomach. It originates at the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage, C6, extending to the cardiac orifice of the stomach.

It descends downward into the superior mediastinum of the thorax. Here, it is situated between the trachea and the vertebral bodies T1 to T4. It then enters the abdomen by piercing the muscular right crus of the diaphragm, through the oesophageal hiatus (simply, a hole in the diaphragm) at the T10 level.

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ANATOMY 2MARKS- PART -2

1.  LAYERS OF HEART

.The heart wall is comprised of three layers, the epicardium (outer), myocardium (middle), and endocardium (inner). These tissue layers are highly specialized and perform different functions.
The epicardium is a thin layer of elastic connective tissue and fat that serves as an additional layer of protection from trauma or friction for the heart under the pericardium.
The middle layer of the heart wall is the myocardium—the muscle tissue of the heart and the thickest layer of the heart wall. It is composed of cardiac muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes.

The inner layer of the heart wall is the endocardium, composed of endothelial cells that provide a smooth, elastic, non-adherent surface for blood collection and pumping.

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ANATOMY: 2MARKS PART-1

1.Synovial Fluid:

The Joints In The Human Body Contains Synovial Fluid. This Fluid Is A Thick Liquid That Lubricates The Joint And Allows For Ease Of Movement. In Joint Diseases Like Arthritis, The Synovium Of The Joint Is The Main Place Where Inflammation Occurs. Limited Mobility In The Joint, Or Pain And Stiffness With Movement, Are Often The First Signs Of Joint Disorders. Synovial Fluid And Joint Inflammation Are More Common We Grow Older. Continue reading “ANATOMY: 2MARKS PART-1”