1. Spasticity :
- Spasticity means increased muscle tone.
- It is a condition inwhich certain muscles are continuously contracted.
- This contraction cause stiffness or tightness of the muscles.
- It’s usually caused bydamage to the portion of the brain or spinal cord that control voluntary movement.
- Spasticity affects more than an estimated 12 million people world wide .
2. Rigidity :
- Rigidity is an increase in muscle tone leading to a resistance to passive movement through out the Range of motion
3.Signs and Symptoms of Quadriplegia :
- loss of movement
- Loss of sensation
- Loss of bowel or bladder control
- Changes in sexual functions
- Difficulty in breathing ,coughing
- Difficulty to Balance and walking
- Extreme back pain.
- Athetosis is amovement dysfunction
- It is characterized byslow, involuntary writhing movements of fingers, hands, toes and feet
- Movements of Athetosisare sometimes called Athetoid movements
- This movements may becontinuous slow and rolling
- They may also makemaintaining a symmetrical and stable posture difficult .
5.Intracranial pressure :
- ICP is the inside theskull and thus is the brain tissue and cerebralspinal fluid (CSF)
- ICP is measured inmillimeters of mercury (mmHg) and at rest, is normally 7-5mmHg supineadult
- Increased ICP is alife-threatening condition
- Myelitis is inflammation of the spinal cord which can disrupt the normal response from thebrain to the rest of the body and from the rest of the body to the brain.
- It can cause the Myelin and axon to be damaged resulting in symptoms such as paralysis ofsensory loss
Types of myelitis:
1. Acute flaccid
3. Transverse myelitis.
- Dysplagia is definedas an inefficient of transferring food , liquid , or saliva from the Orelcavity to the stomach
- And there isdifficulty in swalloing
- These is theprominent symptoms in patients with esoinophilic , esophagitis
- In Dysplagia there aredificulty in the feeding, gagging, irritability and vomiting
- The term chorea isderived from the ancient Greek
- It’s an abnormalinvoluntary movement disorder called dyskinesias (one of a group ofneurological disorder)
- There are quickmovements of feet or hard or comparable to dancing
- Tremor is aninvoluntary rhymemic, muscle contraction leading to shaking movement in one ormore parts of the body
- Mostly affects thehands, arms, head, vocal cord, toes, and legs
- Tremor may beintermittent or constant
- It’s affects both maleand female
- Most common amongmiddle aged and older aged adults
10. Types of spinabifida :
- There are fourtypes
- Closedneural tube defects
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Signs And Symptoms Of Quadriplegia:
- Extreme Back Pain Or Pressure In Your Neck, Head Or Back
- Weakness, Incoordination Or Paralysis In Any Part Of Your Body
- Numbness, Tingling Or Loss Of Sensation In Your Hands, Fingers, Feet Or Toes
- Loss Of Bladder Or Bowel Control
- Difficulty With Balance And Walking
- Impaired Breathing After Injury
- An Oddly Positioned Or Twisted Neck Or Back
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- A dermatome is the area of sensory nerves near the skin that are supplied by a specific spinal nerve root.
- The body can be divided into regions that are mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve.
- There are eight cervical (one for the head, and one for each cervical vertebra), twelve thoracic, five lumbar and five sacral spinal nerves. Dermatomes are useful for finding the site of damage to the spine.
- Involuntary writhing movements, particularly of the arms and hands. Athetosis is associated with several neurological disorders, such as cerebral palsy and Rett syndrome.
LONG TERM MEMORY:
- Long-term memory refers to the storage of information over an extended period.
- If you can remember something that happened more than just a few moments ago whether it occurred just hours ago or decades earlier, then it is a long-term memory.
BERG BALANCE SCALE:
- Berg Balance Scale The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) was developed to measure balance among older people with impairment in balance function by assessing the performance of functional tasks.
- It is a valid instrument used for evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions and for quantitative descriptions of function in clinical practice and research.
Ruler, two standard chairs (one with arm rests, one without), footstool or step, stopwatch or wristwatch, 15 ft walkway
Time: 15-20 minutes
Scoring: A five-point scale, ranging from 0-4. “0” indicates the lowest level of function and “4” the highest level of function. Total Score = 5
Interpretation: 41-56 = low fall risk 21-40 = medium fall risk 0 –20 = high fall risk
AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCELEROSIS:
- A classic motor neuron disease. Motor neuron diseases are progressive chronic diseases of the nerves that come from the spinal cord responsible for supplying electrical stimulation to the muscles.
- The disease is therefore usually referred to simply as ALS.
Increased intracranial pressure is a rise in the pressure inside the skull that can result from or cause brain injury.
Many conditions can increase intracranial pressure. Common causes include:
- Aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage
- Brain tumor
- Encephalitis irritation and swelling, or inflammation, of the brain)
- Head injury
- Hydrocephalus(increased fluid around the brain)
- Hypertensive brain hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain from high blood pressure)
CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSICAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.
- Spinal cord disease that is characterized by inflammation of the white matter or gray matter of the spinal cord.
- During an inflammatory response in the spinal cord, the myelin and axon may be damaged causing symptoms such as paralysis and sensory loss.
- Viral myelitis
- Bacterial myelitis
- Fungal myelitis
- Parasitic myelitis.
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- PPS is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus.
- PPS is mainly characterized by new weakening in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection and in muscles that seemingly were unaffected.
- Symptoms include slowly progressive muscle weakness, unaccustomed fatigue (both generalized and muscular), and, at times, muscle atrophy.
- Pain from joint degeneration and increasing skeletal deformities such as scoliosis are common.
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- Is a term that defines a group of muscle diseases involving inflammation and degeneration of skeletal muscle tissues.
- Inclusion body myositis (IBM) mainly affects individuals over the age of 50.
- The cause of IBM remains unknown, but is thought to be a form of autoimmune disease, where the immune system responds in a harmful manner to the rest of the body.
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- Swallowing disorders – defined as difficulty in passing food or liquid from the mouth to the stomach – occur in all age groups, but especially in the elderly.
- The disorders can occur at any stage of the normal swallowing process, in which food and liquid move from the mouth, through the pharynx, into the esophagus, and finally, into the stomach.
- The disorders are common in individuals with degenerative neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post-polio syndrome, myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease.
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- Cerebellar Degeneration is a disease process in which neurons in the cerebellum – the area of the brain that controls muscle coordination and balance – deteriorate and die.
- Diseases that cause cerebellar degeneration can also involve areas of the brain that connect the cerebellum to the spinal cord, such as the medulla oblongata, the cerebral cortex, and the brain stem.
- Cerebellar degeneration is most often the result of inherited genetic mutations that alter the normal production of specific proteins that are necessary for the survival of neurons.
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- Is a disorder characterized by tingling, numbness, and burning pain in the outer side of the thigh. The disorder is caused by compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve as it exits the pelvis.
- It more commonly occurs in men than women, and is generally found in middle-aged or overweight individuals.
- People with the disorder frequently report that it appears or worsens after walking or standing.
- The skin is often sensitive to touch. Meralgia paresthetica is associated with clothing that is too tight, pregnancy, diabetes, and obesity.
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- AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a virus called HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).
- Neurological complications are common in HIV disease. The spectrum of neurological disorders is broad and involves the central nervous system, or CNS (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system, or PNS (nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, and related muscle).
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