NEUROLOGY-2MARKS-PART-6

INFLAMMATORY MYOPATHIES:

  • Is a term that defines a group of muscle diseases involving inflammation and degeneration of skeletal muscle tissues.
  • Inclusion body myositis (IBM) mainly affects individuals over the age of 50.
  • The cause of IBM remains unknown, but is thought to be a form of autoimmune disease, where the immune system responds in a harmful manner to the rest of the body.

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NEUROLOGY-2MARKS-PART-5

DYSPHAGIA:

  • Swallowing disorders – defined as difficulty in passing food or liquid from the mouth to the stomach – occur in all age groups, but especially in the elderly.
  • The disorders can occur at any stage of the normal swallowing process, in which food and liquid move from the mouth, through the pharynx, into the esophagus, and finally, into the stomach.
  • The disorders are common in individuals with degenerative neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post-polio syndrome, myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease.

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NEUROLOGY-2MARKS-PART-4

CEREBELLAR DEGENERATION:

  • Cerebellar Degeneration is a disease process in which neurons in the cerebellum – the area of the brain that controls muscle coordination and balance – deteriorate and die.
  • Diseases that cause cerebellar degeneration can also involve areas of the brain that connect the cerebellum to the spinal cord, such as the medulla oblongata, the cerebral cortex, and the brain stem.
  • Cerebellar degeneration is most often the result of inherited genetic mutations that alter the normal production of specific proteins that are necessary for the survival of neurons.

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NEUROLOGY-2MARKS-PART-3

BERNHARDT-ROTH SYNDROME:

  •   Is a disorder characterized by tingling, numbness, and burning pain in the outer side of the thigh. The disorder is caused by compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve as it exits the pelvis.
  • It more commonly occurs in men than women, and is generally found in middle-aged or overweight individuals.
  • People with the disorder frequently report that it appears or worsens after walking or standing.
  • The skin is often sensitive to touch. Meralgia paresthetica is associated with clothing that is too tight, pregnancy, diabetes, and obesity.

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NEUROLOGY-2 MARKS-PART-2

AIDS:

  • AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a virus called HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).
  • Neurological complications are common in HIV disease. The spectrum of neurological disorders is broad and involves the central nervous system, or CNS (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system, or PNS (nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, and related muscle).

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