CEREBRAL PALSY: 2 MARKS

ARTICLE CONTRIBUTORS,

3RD YEAR BPT. VINAYAKA MISSIONS COLLEGE OF PHYSIOTHERAPY.

  • SOUNDARYA
  • VISHWA
  • KOWSALYA
  • IMMAN BABU
  • VASANTH KUMAR.

DEFINE CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • IT IS A NON PROGRESSIVE NEUROLOGICAL DISORDER.
  • IT IS OTHER WISE CALLED AS LITTLE DISEASE.
  • IT IS A GROUP DISORDER AFFECT MUSCLE MOVEMENT AND COORDINATION.
  • AFFCETING THE BRAIN, LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
  • CEREBRAL – HAVING TO DO WITH BRAIN
  • PALSY- WEAKNESS OR PROBLEM WITH BODY MOVEMENT.

WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS IN CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • EARLY ONSET
  • IMPAIRED MOTOR SKILLS
  • IMPAIRED CO-ORDINATION
  • NON- PROGRESSIVE IN NATURE
  • DELAYED MILESTONE

TYPES OF CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • SPASTIC
  • ATHETOID
  • ATAXIC
  • RIGID
  • MIXED

DEFINE SPASTIC?

  • IT IS DAMAGE OF CEREBRAL PALSY
  • AFFECTING APPROXIMATELT 80% OF PEOPLE.
  • IT IS MOST COMMON TYPE OF CEREBRAL PALSY.
  • SPASTICITY IS A FORM OF HYPERTONIA OR INCREASED MUSCLE TONE.
  • STIFF MUSCLE
  • DIFFICULT MOVEMENT.

DEFINE ATHETOID?

  • IT IS OTHERWISE CALLED AS DYSKINETIC CEREBRAL PALSY.
  • DUE TO DAMAGE TO THE BASAL GANGLION.
  • IT IS OCCUR DURING BRAIN DEVELOPMENT DUE TO BILIRUBIN ENCEPHALOPATHY AND HYPOXI A-ISCHEMIC BRAIN INJURY.
  • TREMOR
  • POOR POSTURE.
  • INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS.
  • SLOW WRITHING MOVEMENTS.

TYPES OF ATHETOID CP?

  • CHOREA:-

SUDDEN INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENT ,  ESPECIALLY IN FINGER AND TOES.

  • ATHETOSIS:-

SLUGGISH, WRITING MOVEMENTS ,  MAINLY IN FINGERS AND FACE.

  • CHOREA ATHETOID:-

A COMBINATION OF CHOREA AND ATHETOSIS.

  • ATAXIA:-

LOSS OF BALANCE AND CO-ORDINATION.

  • DYSKINESIA:-

GENERAL TERM TO DESCRIBE INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS.

  • DYSTONIA:-

SLOW, ROTATIONAL MOVEMENTS OF THE TORSO,ARM OR LEG.


DEFINE ATAXIA?

  • IT IS DUE TO DAMAGE TO CEREBELLUM.
  • IT IS AFFECTING IN 5-10% PEOPLE.
  • ATAXIA MEANING LACK OF COORDINATION AND ORDER.

SYMPTOMS:-

DIFFICULTY WALKING.

PROBLEM WITH BALANCE AND CO-ORDINATION.


NON SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS EXTRAPYRAMIDAL CEREBRAL PALSY.
  • 20% OF PEOPLE AFFECTED.
  • IT IS ABNORMAL MOVEMENTS IN ARM,LEG, HAND, MAKING IT DIFFICULT TO CONTROL BODY MOVEMENT AND CO-ORDINATION.

TYPES OF NON SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • DYSKINETIC
  • ATHETOID
  • ATAXIC

HYPERTONIC CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • HYPERTONIC CEREBRAL PALSY ALSO KNOWN AS HYPOTONIC CEREBRAL PALSY.
  • IT IS A FORM OF THE DISORDER MARKED BY ABNORMALLY RELAXED MUSCLE AND DECREASED MUSCLE TONE.

SYMPTOMS OF HYPOTONIC CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • MUSCLE SPASM
  • MUSCLE RESISTANCE WHEN TRYING TO MAKE MOVEMENTS.
  • RESPIRATORY ISSUSES.
  • SCISSOR MOVEMENT WITH LEGS.
  • RANDOM MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS.
  • ABNORMAL TRUNCAL TONE.

PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CP?

  • HEMIPLEGIA:- ONE SIDE OF THE BODY WILL BE AFFECTED
  • DIPLEGIA:- IT AFFECTED UPPER OR LOWER LIMB
  • MONOPLEGIA:- ONLY ONE LIMB WILL BE AFFECTED
  • QUADRIPLEGIA:- ALL THE FOUR LIMBS WILL BE AFFECTED

WHAT ARE THE CLINICAL FEATURES IN CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • ADUCTOR SPASM OF HIP
  • DROOPING OF SALIVA
  • VISUAL PROBLEM
  • HEARING PROBLEM
  • SPEECH DIFFICULTY
  • EPILEPSY
  • INCONTINENCE OF URINE
  • BEHAVIOURAL ABNORMALITIES
  • SEZUIRES
  • COMMUNICATION DIFFICULTIES
  • LEARNING DIFFICULTIES.

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES IN CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • PRENATAL:-
  • GENETIC FACTOR
  • PREMATURITY
  • MATERNAL INFECTION

 

  • PERINATAL:-
  • HYPOXIA
  • TWISTING OF UMBLICAL CORD
  • HYPERTHERMIA
  • BIRTH INJURY

 

  • POST NATAL:-
  • INFECTION – TORCH INFECTION
  • INFARCTION
  • JAUNDICE
  • NEONATAL INFECTION
  • BLEEDING IN INTERAL CAROTID ARTERY

WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTOR IN CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • PREMATURE BIRTH
  • LOW BIRTH WEIGHT
  • BREECH BIRTH
  • FEET COME OUT FIRST.

PREVENTION OF CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • AVOID ABNORMAL DELIVERIES
  • AVOID SKULL INJURIES
  • AVOID MOTHER WHILE PREGNANCY CONSUPTION OF ALCOHOL.
  • DON’T SMOKE.

HOW SEVERALY CHILD WILL BE AFFECTED BY CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • DEPEND ON THE TYPE OF CEREBRAL PALSY AND THE EXTENT OF THE BRAIN DAMAGE OR BRAIN MALFORMATION WHICH CAUSED IT.
  • IMPAIRMENT FROM CEREBRAL PALSY FROM MILD TO SEVERE.
  • MANY PEOPLE WITH CEREBRAL PALSY LEAD NEARLY NORMAL LIVES, WHILE SOME CEREBRAL PALSY PATIENT REQUIRE CONSTANT CARE FROM OTHER THROUGHOUT THEIR LIVES.

IS CEREBRAL PALSY HEREDITARY?

  • SOME CASES OF BRAIN MALFORMATION ARE DUE TO GENE ABNORMALITIES WHICH PREVENT THE BRAIN FROM DEVELOPING NORMALLY, BUT THIS IS RARE.
  • MOST CASES OF CEREBRAL PALSY ARE NOT IN ANYWAY HEREDITARY, BUT ARE DUE TO FACTOR WHICH OCCURRED DURING THE COURSE OF THE PREGNANCY.

WHAT IS CONGENITAL CEREBRAL  PALSY?

  • THE TERM CONGENITAL MEANS PRESENT AT BIRTH BETWEEN 90-95% OF CEREBRAL PALSY BIRTH CASES ARE CONGENITAL
  • CONGENITAL CEREBRAL INCLUDE THOSE CASE WHICH WERE CAUSED BY OXYGEN DEPRIVATION DURING BIRTH.
  • BRAIN TRAUMA, INFECTION, STROKES AND OTHER PROBLEM AFTER BIRTH CAN OCCASIONALY CAUSE ACQUIRED CEREBRAL PALSY.

DEFINE RIGID CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • IT IS A TYPE OF CEREBRAL PALSY.
  • THIS IS INCREASED TONE OF MUSCLE IN BOTH AGONIST AND ANTAGONIST MUSCLE.

DEFINE MIXED CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • IT IS A TYPE OF CEREBRAL PALSY.
  • IT IS A CONDITION OF MIXTURE OF ALL THE FOUR TYPE OF CEREBRAL PALSY.
  • THE FOUR TYPE IN SPASTIC, ATHETOID, ATAXIC, RIGID.

CAUSES OF MIXED CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • DAMAGE TO MOTOR CORTEX.
  • DAMAGE TO PYRAMIDAL TRACTS.
  • DAMAGE TO BASAL GANGLIA
  • DAMAGE TO CEREBELLUM
  • LACK OXYGEN IN DURING BIRTH.

WHAT ARE THE TREATMENT IN CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • PHENOBARBITONE
  • PHENYTONIN
  • CARBOMAZEPINE
  • DIAZEPAM
  • DANTROLENE
  • CLONAZEPAM.

WHAT IS HYPOTONIC CEREBRAL PALSY?

  • HYPOTONIA IS DIMINISHED MUSCLE TONE.
  • IT RESULT IN SEVERE BRAIN DAMAGE OR MALFORMATIONS
  • ABNORMALITIES IN WALKING.
  • SPEECH DIFFICULTY.

TEAM WORK.
STUDENTS FROM VMCPT
3RD YEAR.
2015-2016.

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