GENERAL MEDICINE & OG: 2 MARKS- PART 1

ANEMIA:

  • Anemia is a medical condition in which the red blood cell count or hemoglobin is less than normal. Anemia is caused by either a decrease in production of red blood cells or hemoglobin, or an increase in loss (usually due to bleeding) or destruction of red blood cells.
  • For men, anemia is typically defined as hemoglobin level of less than 13.5 gram/100 ml and in women as hemoglobin of less than 12.0 gram/100 ml.


HAEMOPHILIA:

  • Haemophilia describes a group of bleeding disorders. They are quite rare and cause problems with blood clotting. Haemophilia generally only affects males. Although severe haemophilia is rare in females, women can still have mild symptoms or just be carriers of the gene responsible for the condition.
  • Bleeding disorders are due to defects in the blood vessels, the coagulation mechanism, or the blood platelets. An affected individual may bleed spontaneously or for longer than a healthy person after injury or surgery.


PNEUMONIA:

Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lung. It can be caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Pneumonia causes inflammation in your lung’s air sacs, or alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe.

The most common bacterial type that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include

  • Fever,
  • Chills,
  • Cough,
  • Shortness of breath, and
  • Fatigue.


TYPES OF ASTHMA:

  • Exercise -induced asthma (asthma that occurs with physical exertion).
  • Nighttime asthma (asthma that makes sleeping miserable and is quite serious).
  • Cough-variant asthma( is a type of asthma in which the main symptom is a dry, non-productive cough. A non-productive cough does not expel any mucus from the respiratory tract)
  • Occupational asthma is asthma caused by, or worsened by, exposure to substances in the workplace.

EXAMPLES:

  •   Proteins in animal hair and/or dander
  •   Grains, coffee beans, and papain (an extract of papaya that may trigger a latex allergy)
  •   Cotton, flax, and hemp dust, commonly found in the textile industry
  •   Metals such as platinum, nickel sulfate, chromium, and soldering fumes.

HEPATITIS:

  • Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. It’s commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol.
  • Viral infections of the liver that are classified as hepatitis include hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. A different virus is responsible for each type of virally transmitted hepatitis.
  • Hepatitis A is always an acute, short-term disease, while hepatitis B, C, and D are most likely to become ongoing and chronic. Hepatitis E is usually acute but can be particularly dangerous in pregnant women.


 

CLASSIFICATION BRONCHIECTASIS:

  • Cylindrical bronchiectasis has parallel tram track lines, or it may have a signet-ring appearance composed of a dilated bronchus cut in a horizontal section with an adjacent pulmonary artery representing the stone
  • Varicose bronchiectasis has irregular or beaded bronchi, with alternating areas of dilatation and constriction
  •  Cystic bronchiectasis has large cystic spaces and a honeycomb appearance; this contrasts with the blebs of emphysema, which have thinner walls and are not accompanied by proximal airway abnormalities.

TUBERCULOSIS:

  • Tuberculosis – or TB, as it’s commonly called is a contagious infection that usually attacks the lungs. It can also spread to other parts of the body, like the brain and spine. A type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it.
  • Latent TB  In this condition, you have a TB infection, but the bacteria remain in your body in an inactive state and cause no symptoms. Latent TB, also called inactive TB or TB infection, isn’t contagious.
  • Active TB  This condition makes you sick and can spread to others. It can occur in the first few weeks after infection with the TB bacteria, or it might occur years later.

 


HEART FAILURE:

  • Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic progressive condition that affects the pumping power of your heart muscles. While often referred to simply as “heart failure,” CHF specifically refers to the stage in which fluid builds up around the heart and causes it to pump inefficiently.
  • CHF develops when your ventricles can’t pump blood in sufficient volume to the body. Eventually, blood and other fluids can back up inside your:
  • lungs
  • abdomen
  • liver
  • lower body.

HYPERTENSION:

ANSWER 1:

High blood pressure or hypertension increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. Hypertension risk factors include obesity, drinking too much alcohol, smoking, and family history. Beta-blockers are a common treatment for hypertension.

ANSWER 2:

Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure.

ANSWER 3:

High blood pressure is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.


PULMONARY INFRACTION:

ANSWER 1:

A pulmonary infarction is the death of a portion of lung tissue caused by an an interruption of its blood supply, most commonly due to blockage in the blood vessels supplying the lung tissue.

ANSWER 2:

Pulmonary infarction is the destruction of lung cells  following a stopage of blood circulation. This infarction is the consequence of the blockage of an artery that irrigates lung tissue. The pulmonary infarction is a rare complication of a pulmonary embolism.This means that a clot has migrated from another area of the body (usually the legs) into a pulmonary artery, where it is blocked. Clinical signs are typically coughing up black blood, chest pain, and dry cough leading us to suspect a pulmonary embolism.


CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST

 

 

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