GENERAL MEDICINE & OG- PART 2

EMBOLISM:

  • The obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign substance or a blood clot that travels through the bloodstream, lodging in a blood vessel, plugging the vessel. Blood clots are the most common causes of embolisms.
  •  A pulmonary embolus is a blood clot that has been carried through the blood into the pulmonary artery (the main blood vessel from the heart to the lung) or one of its branches, plugging that vessel within the lung.
  • The clots block blood flow to the lungs, pulmonary embolism can be life-threatening.

INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS :

ANSWER 1: Infective endocarditis (IE) is defined as an infection of the endocardial surface of the heart, which may include one or more heart valves, the mural endocardium, or a septal defect.

ANSWER 2: Endocarditis is inflammation of your heart’s inner lining, called the endocardium. This condition is also called infective endocarditis. It’s usually caused by bacteria. Endocarditis is uncommon in people with healthy hearts. Acute bacterial endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus with perforation of the aortic valve and aortic valve.


DEFINE REPRODUCTION:

Process by which organisms replicate themselves. Reproduction is often considered solely in terms of the production of offspring in animals and plants, the more general meaning has far greater significance to living organisms.


LIGAMENTS OF HIP JOINT:

Intracapsular:

Intracapsular ligament is the ligament of head of femur. It is a relatively small structure, which runs from the acetabular fossa to the fovea of the femur.

Extracapsular:

  • Iliofemoral ligament – spans between the anterior inferior iliac spine and the intertrochanteric line of the femur.
  • It has a ‘Y’ shaped appearance, and prevents hyperextension of the hip joint
  • Pubofemoral : spans between the superior pubic rami and the intertrochanteric line of the femur.
  • It has a triangular shape, and prevents excessive abduction and extension.
  • Ischiofemoral – spans between the body of the ischium and the greater trochanter of the femur.
  • It has a spiral orientation, and prevents excessive extension.

OSTEOARTHRITIS:

  • Osteoarthritis, commonly known as wear-and-tear arthritis, is a condition in which the natural cushioning between joints  cartilage wears away.
  • Sometimes called degenerative joint disease or degenerative arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic condition of the joints.
  • The bones of the joints rub more closely against one another with less of the shock-absorbing benefits of cartilage.

  • The rubbing results in pain, swelling, stiffness, decreased ability to move and, sometimes, the formation of bone spurs.

SCLERODERMA :

  • Scleroderma  is a group of rare diseases that involve the hardening and tightening of the skin and connective tissues.
  • Scleroderma, is a chronic connective tissue disease generally classified as one of the autoimmune rheumatic diseases.
  • Hardening of the skin is one of the most visible manifestations of the disease. The disease has been called “progressive systemic sclerosis.


POLYMYOSITIS:

  • Polymyositis is an uncommon inflammatory disease that causes muscle weakness affecting both sides of your body.
  • The weakness begins with muscles closest to and within the trunk of the body. Neck, hip, back and shoulder muscles. Patients experience muscle pain, breathing problems, and trouble swallowing also.

Signs:

  • Sudden or gradual weakness in the muscles
  • Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  • Falling and difficulty getting up from a fall
  • General feelings of tiredness
  • Chronic dry cough.


MYOPATHY:

  • Myopathies are diseases of skeletal muscle that are not caused by nerve disorders. These diseases cause the skeletal or voluntary muscles to become weak or shrunken (atrophied).
  • Abnormalities of muscle cell structure and metabolism lead to various patterns of weakness and dysfunction.
  • The main causes of myopathies are genetic, inflammatory (caused by infection), endocrine (hormonal), and metabolic.


DIABETES MELLITUS:

  • Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body’s ability to use the energy found in food.
  • There are three major types of diabetes- type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes.
  • Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes- The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, accounting for 95% of diabetes cases in adults. Type 2 diabetes was also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS:

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints and other areas of the body. Chronic inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis can cause permanent joint destruction and deformity.

Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may include:

  • Tender, warm, swollen joints
  • Joint stiffness that is usually worse in the mornings and after inactivity
  • Fatigue, fever and weight loss.

CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST

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