GENERAL MEDICINE & OG: PART 4

PNEUMONIA:

Pneumonia is a serious disease which affects your lungs and makes it difficult for you to breath inflammation or infection of the alveoli of the lungs of varying degrees of severity and caused by bacteria, viruses, etc.


PULMONARY INFRACTION:

A pulmonary infarction is the death of a portion of lung tissue caused by an interruption of its blood supply, most commonly due to blockage in the blood vessels supplying the lung tissue.

BLEEDING DIATHESIS:

Bleeding diathesis: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (VASCULAR HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).


BURNS:

The term “burn” means more than the burning sensation associated with this injury. Burns are characterized by severe skin damage that causes the affected skin cells to die.


SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF 3 YEAR CHILD:

Social and Emotional

  • Copies adults and friends
  • Shows affection for friends without prompting
  • Takes turns in games
  • Shows concern for crying friend
  • Understands the idea of “mine” and “his” or “hers”
  • Shows a wide range of emotions
  • Separates easily from mom and dad
  • May get upset with major changes in routine
  • Dresses and undresses self

Language/Communication

  • Follows instructions with 2 or 3 steps
  • Can name most familiar things
  • Understands words like “in,” “on,” and “under”
  • Says first name, age, and sex
  • Names a friend
  • Says words like “I,” “me,” “we,” and “you” and some plurals (cars, dogs, cats)
  • Talks well enough for strangers to understand most of the time
  • Carries on a conversation using 2 to 3 sentences

Cognitive (learning, thinking, problem-solving)

  • Can work toys with buttons, levers, and moving parts
  • Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people
  • Does puzzles with 3 or 4 pieces
  • Understands what “two” means
  • Copies a circle with pencil or crayon
  • Turns book pages one at a time
  • Builds towers of more than 6 blocks
  • Screws and unscrews jar lids or turns door handle

Movement/Physical Development

  • Climbs well
  • Runs easily
  • Pedals a tricycle (3-wheel bike)
  • Walks up and down stairs, one foot on each step.

Infections of the Fetus and Newborn Infant:

MATERNAL INFECTIONS:

  1. The first trimester is usually the most dangerous time for the mother to acquire these infections, because there is a greater risk of the fetus being affected.
  2. Infection in the mother can often be accompanied by very trivial symptoms, or even none at all, so the condition is not usually diagnosed.
  3. Infection in the mother does not always mean the baby will be affected.  For many infections, the baby is more at risk at particular stages of pregnancy (for example, first trimester for Rubella, at delivery for HSV).
  4. Some infections can be avoided by the mother through simple measures, such as immunization (Rubella, VZV) during childhood and before pregnancy.  Some infections are treatable (ex. syphilis is treated effectively with penicillin).

Etiologic Agents

Viruses :
CMV, HSV, Erythrovirus (Parvovirus) B19, Enteroviruses, Hepatitis B virus, VZV, HIV, Rubella.

Bacteria :
Treponema pallidum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella typhosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter fetus, Borrelia burgdorferi.

Fungi :
Candida albicans

Parasites :
Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., Trypanosoma cruzi.

The more common organisms causing congenital infections include:
CMV, HSV, Erythrovirus (Parvovirus) B19, Rubella, Hepatitis B virus, HIV, VZV, Treponema pallidum, Toxoplasma gondii.


CLINICAL FEATHURES OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common post-operative complication for various surgical procedures.

A UTI should also be considered in the any patient who presents:

  • Septic (without a clear foci of infection)
  • With acute urinary retention
  • With delirium

It is also important to examine for signs of pyelonephritis (renal angle tenderness).


COLONSTOMY:

A colostomy is an opening called a stoma that connects the colon to the surface of the abdomen. This provides a new path for waste material and gas to leave the body. A colostomy can be permanent or temporary.


Thrombosis:

The formation or presence of a blood clot in a blood vessel. The vessel may be any vein or artery as, for example, in a deep vein thrombosis or a coronary (artery) thrombosis. The clot itself is termed a thrombus.


CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSICAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.

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