GENERAL SURGERY 2MARKS- PART 1

COLOSTOMY:

  • A colostomy is a surgical procedure that brings one end of the large intestine out through the abdominal wall. During this procedure, one end of the colon is diverted through an incision in the abdominal wall to create a stoma.
  •  A stoma is the opening in the skin where a pouch for collecting feces is attached.
  • People with temporary or long-term colostomies have pouches attached to their sides where feces collect and can be easily disposed.

ILEOSTOMY:

Colostomy and ileostomy are surgically created openings in the abdominal wall that alter the normal route for elimination of feces (bowel diversion surgery). An opening (stoma) is created in the abdominal wall. The intestine (colon or ileum) is brought to the stoma to create an artificial outlet for the gastrointestinal tract.


PROSTATECTOMY:

  • A prostatectomy is surgery to remove all or part of the prostate.
  • The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that’s located between a man’s bladder and penis.

Types of Prostatectomy:

There are two main types of prostatectomy:

A radical prostatectomy, and

An open simple prostatectomy.

  • In a radical prostatectomy,  removal of the entire prostate gland along with surrounding tissue, including lymph nodes.
  • This procedure is commonly done in men with prostate cancer.
  • In an open simple prostatectomy,  removal of the problematic part of the prostate, not the entire gland.
  • This procedure is usually recommended for men who suffer from an enlarged prostate.

ULCER:

  • Stomach ulcers are painful sores that can be found in the stomach lining or small intestine. Stomach ulcers are the most visible sign of peptic ulcer  disease. They occur when the thick layer of mucus that protects your stomach from digestive juices is reduced. Stomach ulcers are easily cured, but they can become severe without proper treatment.

POSITIONING IN BURNS:

       BODY PART

DESIRED POSITION TECHNIQUES TO

ACHEIEVE DESIRED

POSITION

HEAD If facial or inhalation injury

has been sustained,

elevate the head of bed up

to 30 degrees for the first

48 hours to minimize facial

edema

 

Elevate head of bed
NECK Slight extension, and

neutral rotation. Avoid

hyperextension which

creates difficulty with

coughing, breathing and

swallowing

 

No pillow, Neck conforme
EARS/FACE

 

Prevent pressure

 

No pillow, ear cups

 

CHEST/ABDOMEN

 

 

Trunk extension, shoulder

retraction

Towel roll lower spine,

Clavicle/Shoulder strap

 

SHOULDERS Shoulder abduction 90

degrees. In sidelying, flex

shoulders to 90 degrees to

prevent pull on brachial

plexus

 

Foam wedges, airplane

splints, bedside table

when sitting, pillows

 

ELBOWS/FOREARM

 

 

Elbow extension, forearm

supination: antecubital

burns, otherwise alternate.

NEVER hyperextend

Pillows, splints, bedside

table

 

WRIST AND HANDS

Wrist extension 30

degrees, MCP flexion 75

degrees, IP flexion 0-5

degrees, thumb abduction

 

Splints, foam rolls, hand

cones, dressings

 

HIPS

Hips abducted, neutral

rotation, and neutral

extension

Foam wedges or pillows

between knees, trochanter

rolls

 

KNEES

.

Knee extension, neutral

rotation to prevent pull on

peroneal nerve Slight flexion for anterior

burn

 

Splints, casts, elevation

 

       ANKLES

Neutral to 5 degrees

dorsiflexion, neutral

inversion/eversion

 

Splints, pillows, foam

wedges

 


CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.

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