HYDROCEPHALUS: 2 MARKS

ARTICLE CONTRIBUTORS:

  • ABIRAMI
  • NANDHINI
  • BALAJI
  • MOUNIKA
  • SALAMON

DEFINE HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • IT IS AN ACCUMULATION OF CEREBRO SPINAL FLUID (CSF) WITHIN THE BRAIN.
  • THIS TYPICALLY CAUSES INCREASED PRESSURE ISIDE THE SKULL.
  • IN BABIES THERE MAY BE A RAPID INCREASE IN HEAD SIZE.
  • OLDER PEOPLE MAY HAVE HEADACHE, DOUBLE VISION, POOR BALANCE, URINARY INCONTINENCE, PERSONALITY CHANGES, OR MENTAL IMPAIRMENT.

TYPES OF HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • COMMUNICATING
  • NON- COMMUNICATING.

SYMPTOMS OF HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • HEAD ACHE
  • VOMITING
  • NAUSEA
  • PAPILLEDEMA
  • SLEEPINESS
  • COMA
  • DOUBLE VISION
  • POOR BALANCE
  • URINARY INCONTINENCE
  • PERSONALITY CHANGES
  • MENTAL IMPAIRMENT.

DEFINE COMMUNICATING HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • COMMUNICATING HYDROCEPHALUS ALSO KNOWN AS NON- OBSTRUCTIVE HYDROCEPHALUS.
  • IT IS CAUSED BY IMPAIRED CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RE ABSORPTION IN THE ABSENCE OF ANY CSF – FLOW OBSTRUCTION BETWEEN THE VENTRICLES.

DEFINE NON- COMMUNICATING HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • NON COMMUNICATING HYDROCEPHALUS ALSO KNOWN AS OBSTRUCTIVE HYDROCEPHALUS.
  • IT IS CAUSED BY A CSF – FLOW ABSTRUCTION.

WRITE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • VENTRICULAR ENLARGEMENT DISPROPORTIONATE TO THE DEGREE OF SULCAL WIDENING.
  • ENLARGEMENT OF TEMPORAL HORNE
  • PERIVENTRICULAR FLUID SECONDARY TO TRANSEPENDYMAL CSF PERMEATION.
  • IN CHILDREN <2 YEARS THE HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE IS OFTEN THE BEST DISTINGUISHING FEATURE BETWEEN HYDROCEPHALUS AND ATROPHY.

CAUSES OF HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS
  • MENINGITIS
  • BRAIN TUMORS
  • TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
  • INTRA-VENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGE
  • AQUEDUCTAL STENOSIS
  • SUB-ARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE.

RISK FACTORS OF HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • BRAIN SURGERY
  • HEAD INJURIES
  • BLEEDING FROM BLOOD VESSELS.

WHICH ARE SYMPTOMS OCCUR IN OLDER CHILDREN?

  • BRIEF, SHRILL, HIGH PITCHED CRY
  • CHANGES IN PERSONALITY , MEMORY.
  • CHANGES IN FACIAL APPEEARENCE AND EYE SPACING.
  • CROSSED EYES OR UNCONTROLLED EYE MOVEMENTS.
  • DIFFICULTY FEEDING.
  • EXCESSIVE SLEEPINESS
  • IRRITABILITY
  • POOR TEMPER COTROL
  • LOSS OF BLADDER CONTROL
  • LOSS OF CO-ORDINATION AND TROUBLE WALKING.
  • MUSCLE SPASTICITY.
  • SLOW GROWTH (CHILD 0-5 YEARS)
  • RESTRICTED MOVEMENTS
  • VOMITING

DEFINE AQUEDUCTAL STENOSIS?

  • THE NARROW PASSAGE BETWEEN THE THIRD AND FOURTH VENTRICLE IN THE BRAIN IS BLOCKED OR TOO NARROW TO ALLOW SUFFICIENT CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID TO DRAIN.
  • FLUID ACCUMULATES IN THE UPPER VENTRICLES, CAUSING HYDROCEPHALUS.

COMPLICATIONS OF HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • WHEN THE CSF DRAINS MORE RAPIDLY THAN IT IS PRODUCED BY THE CHOROID PLEXUS.
  • IT CAUSES THE SYMPTOMS
  • LISTLESSNESS
  • SEVERE HEAD ACHE
  • HYPERESTHESIA
  • DIZZINESS
  • VERTIGO
  • MIGRAINES
  • SEIZURES
  • WEAKNESS IN ARMS AND LEGS
  • STRABISMUS
  • DOUBLE VISION.

MANAGEMENT OF HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • RELIEF OF THE HYDROCEPHALUS
  • TREATMENT OF COMPLICATIONS.
  • MANAGEMENT OF THE PROBLEM RELATED TO THE EFFECTS OF THE DISORDER ON PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT.

SHUNTS OF HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • VENTRICULO – PERITONAL SHUNT
  • VENTRICULO – ATRIAL SHUNT
  • VENTRICULO – PLEURAL SHUNT
  • VENTRICULO – GALBLADDER SHUNT.

DIAGNOSIS OF HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • CT SCAN
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI).

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • ACETOZOLAMIDE:-
  • DOSE OF 50MG/KG/DAY
  • IT DIMINSHES CSF PRODUCTION
  • ORAL GLYCEROL HAS ALSO USED FOR SIMILAR PURPOSE.
  • DIURETIC:-
  • INCREASES URINE PRODUCTION TO GET RI OF EXCESS SALT AND WATER.

DEFINE VENTRICULO – PERITONIAL SHUNT?

  • A TUBE INSERTED THROUGH A SMALL HOLE IN THE SKULL TO DRAIN EXCESS FLUID AND RELIEVE PRESSURE ON THE BRAIN.

SURGERY FOR HYDROCEPHALUS?

  • VENTRICULOSTOMY:-
  • SURGERY TO CREATE AN OPEING IN THE SKULL.
  • SO THAT AN INSERTED TUBE CAN DRAIN EXCESS FLUID FROM BRAIN.
  • IT IS OTHERWISE CALLED AS EXTERNAL VENTRICULAR DRAIN (EVD)

 

TEAM WORK

VMCPT, 3RD YEAR

BATCH 2015-2016

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