MICROBIOLOGY-2MARKS-PART-2

NAME CONTRIBUTIONS OF ANTON VON LEEUWENHOEK:

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek is another scientist who saw these cells soon after Hooke did. He made use of a microscope containing improved lenses that could magnify objects almost 300-fold, or 270x. Leeuwenhoek named these “animalcules,” which included protozoa and other unicellular organisms, like bacteria
  • Van Leeuwenhoek discovered “protozoa” – the single-celled organisms and he called them “animalcules”. He also improved the microscope and laid foundation for microbiology. He is often cited as the first microbiologist to study muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa and blood flow in capillaries.

 LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES:

  • Live attenuated (LAV
  • Tuberculosis (BCG)
  • Oral polio vaccine (OPV)
  •  Measles
  •  Rotavirus
  •  Yellow fever
  • Available since the 1950s, live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are derived from disease causing pathogens (virus or bacteria) that have been weakened under laboratory conditions. They will grow in a vaccinated individual, but because they are weak, they will cause no or very mild disease.

ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA:

  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria is defined as isolation of a specified quantitative count of bacteria in an appropriately collected urine specimen from an individual without symptoms or signs of urinary tract infection.
  • A variety of organisms may be found, however, including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus species, and group B Streptococcus. In men, Enterococcus species and gram-negative bacilli are common.

LIST THE ORGANISM CAUSING GENITAL ULCERS:

  • A genital ulcer is located on the genital area, usually caused by a sexually transmitted disease such as genital herpes, syphilis, chancroid, or Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • Haemophilus ducreyi
  • cytomegalovirus
  • influenza A
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • Treponema pallidum
  •  Herpes simplex.

SABIN VACCINE:

  • Medical Definition of Sabin vaccine,a polio vaccine that is taken by mouth and contains the three serotypes of poliovirus in a weakened, live state—called also Sabin oral vaccine, compare salk vaccine.
  • A vaccine is a medicine you take to keep you from getting a disease. The polio vaccine comes in two forms. Inactivated polio vaccine (called IPV) is given by injection (a “shot”). Oral polio vaccine (called OPV) is given by drops in the mouth.

GHONS FOCUS:

  • A Ghon focus is a primary lesion usually subpleural, often in the mid to lower zones, caused by Mycobacterium bacilli (tuberculosis) developed in the lung of a nonimmune host (usually a child).
  • Ghon’s focus (gonz) n. the lesion produced in the lung of a previously uninfected person by tubercle bacilli. It is a small focus of granulomatous inflammation, which may become visible on a chest X-ray if it grows large enough or if it calcifies.

ROBENT ULCER:

  • Rodent ulcers are know as Basal cell carcinoma, or BCC is a malignant cancer of the skin. It is the most common form of tumour. It is also commonly known as ‘rodent ulcer’, a term from many years ago given because of the ‘gnawed’ appearance that very large BCCs can have.
  • Superficial rodent ulcers look like a flat red scaly patch of skin.
  • Nodular rodent ulcers tend to be firm growths that start as small ‘spots’.
  • Infiltrative rodent ulcers tend to be relatively flat growths, but can form scabs in their middle.
  • Morphoeic rodent ulcers look very much like scar tissue.

VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY:

VITAMIN D Known as the “sunshine vitamin,” vitamin D is a vitamin you can get from food or supplements. Exposure to the sun also stimulates vitamin D production in the skin.

  • Difficulty thinking clearly.
  • Bone pain.
  • Frequent bone fractures.
  • Muscle weakness.
  • Soft bones that may result in deformities.
  • Unexplained fatigue.

CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.

 

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