NEUROLOGY- 2 MARKS- PART 10

1. Spasticity :

  • Spasticity means increased muscle tone. 
  • It is a condition inwhich certain muscles are continuously contracted.
  • This contraction cause stiffness or tightness of the muscles. 
  • It’s usually caused bydamage to the portion of the brain or spinal cord that control voluntary movement.
  • Spasticity affects more than an estimated 12 million people world wide .

2. Rigidity :

  • Rigidity is an increase in muscle tone leading to a resistance to passive movement through out the Range of motion 

3.Signs and Symptoms of Quadriplegia :

  •  loss of movement 
  • Loss of sensation 
  • Loss of bowel or bladder control 
  • Changes in sexual functions
  • Difficulty in  breathing ,coughing 
  • Difficulty to Balance and walking 
  • Numbness,tingling 
  • Extreme back pain.

4.Athetosis :

  • Athetosis is amovement dysfunction 
  • It is characterized byslow, involuntary writhing movements of fingers, hands, toes and feet 
  • Movements of Athetosisare sometimes called Athetoid movements 
  • This movements may becontinuous slow and rolling 
  • They may also makemaintaining a symmetrical and stable posture difficult .

5.Intracranial pressure : 

  • ICP is the inside theskull and thus is the brain tissue and cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) 
  • ICP is measured inmillimeters of mercury (mmHg) and at rest, is normally 7-5mmHg supineadult 
  • Increased ICP is alife-threatening condition 

6.Myelitis :

  •  Myelitis is inflammation of the spinal cord which can disrupt the normal response from thebrain to the rest of the body and from the rest of the body to the brain.
  • It can cause the Myelin and axon to be damaged resulting in symptoms such as paralysis ofsensory loss

  Types of myelitis: 

 1. Acute flaccid myelitis 

 2. Poliomyelitis 

 3. Transverse myelitis.

7.Dysphagia :

  • Dysplagia is definedas an inefficient of transferring food , liquid , or saliva from the Orelcavity to the stomach 
  • And there isdifficulty in swalloing
  • These is  theprominent symptoms in patients with esoinophilic , esophagitis 
  • In Dysplagia there aredificulty in the feeding, gagging, irritability and vomiting 

8.Chorea :

  • The term chorea isderived from the ancient Greek 
  • It’s an abnormalinvoluntary movement disorder called dyskinesias (one of a group ofneurological disorder) 
  • There are quickmovements of feet or hard or comparable to dancing 

9.Tremor :

  •  Tremor is aninvoluntary rhymemic, muscle contraction leading to shaking movement in one ormore parts of the body 
  • Mostly affects thehands, arms, head, vocal cord, toes, and legs 
  • Tremor may beintermittent or constant 
  • It’s affects both maleand female 
  • Most common amongmiddle aged and older aged adults 

10. Types of spinabifida :

  • There are fourtypes 
  •    Occulta 
  •    Closedneural tube defects 
  •     Meningocele
  •     Myelomeningocele.
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