NEUROLOGY-2MARKS-PART-3

BERNHARDT-ROTH SYNDROME:

  •   Is a disorder characterized by tingling, numbness, and burning pain in the outer side of the thigh. The disorder is caused by compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve as it exits the pelvis.
  • It more commonly occurs in men than women, and is generally found in middle-aged or overweight individuals.
  • People with the disorder frequently report that it appears or worsens after walking or standing.
  • The skin is often sensitive to touch. Meralgia paresthetica is associated with clothing that is too tight, pregnancy, diabetes, and obesity.

BENIGN INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION:

  • Sometimes called benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) or pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is a neurological disorder that is characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), in the absence of a tumor or other diseases affecting the brain or its lining.
  • The main symptoms are headache and visual problems. Diagnosis requires brain scans and lumbar puncture. There are various medical and surgical treatments.

BRACHIAL PLEXUS INJURIES:

  • The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves.
  • Erb-Duchenne (Erb’s) palsy refers to paralysis of the upper brachial plexus. Dejerine-Klumpke (Klumpke’s) palsy refers to paralysis of the lower brachial plexus.
  • Symptoms of brachial plexus injury may include a limp or paralyzed arm; lack of muscle control in the arm, hand, or wrist, and lack of feeling or sensation in the arm or hand.

BRAIN AND SPINAL TUMORS:

  • Are abnormal growths of tissue found inside the skull or the bony spinal column, which are the primary components of the central nervous system (CNS).
  • Benign tumors are noncancerous, and malignant tumors are cancerous. The CNS is housed within rigid, bony quarters (i.e., the skull and spinal column), so any abnormal growth, whether benign or malignant, can place pressure on sensitive tissues and impair function.
  • Tumors that originate in the brain or spinal cord are called primary tumors.

BRAIN ANEURYSM:

  • A cerebral aneurysm or brain aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel.

BRAIN INJURY:

  • (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage.
  • TBI can result from a closed head injury or a penetrating head injury and is one of two subsets of acquired brain injury (ABI).
  • The other subset is non-traumatic brain injury (e.g. stroke, meningitis, anoxia). Parts of the brain that can be damaged include the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brain stem.
  • TBI can cause a host of physical, cognitive, emotional, and social effects.

BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME:

  •  Brown-Sequard Syndrome is an incomplete spinal cord lesion characterized by a clinical picture reflecting hemisection of the spinal cord, often in the cervical cord region.
  • It is a rare syndrome, consisting of ipsilateral hemiplegia with contralateral pain and temperature sensation deficits because of the crossing of the fibers of the spinothalamic tract.

BULBOSPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY:

  • Bulbospinal Muscular Atrophy or Kennedy’s disease is an inherited motor neuron disease that affects males. It is one of a group of disorders called spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).
  • Onset of the disease is usually between the ages of 20 and 40, although it has been diagnosed in men from their teens to their 70s. Early symptoms include tremor of the outstretched hands, muscle cramps with exertion, and fasciculations (fleeting muscle twitches visible under the skin)

CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME:

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome occurs when the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the hand, becomes pressed or squeezed at the wrist.
  • The median nerve controls sensations to the palm side of the thumb and fingers (although not the little finger), as well as impulses to some small muscles in the hand that allow the fingers and thumb to move.
  • The carpal tunnel – a narrow, rigid passageway of ligament and bones at the base of the hand houses the median nerve and tendons. Sometimes, thickening from irritated tendons or other swelling narrows the tunnel and causes the median nerve to be compressed.
  • The result may be pain, weakness, or numbness in the hand and wrist, radiating up the arm.

CAUSALGIA:

  •  Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. The key symptom of CRPS is continuous, intense pain out of proportion to the severity of the injury, which gets worse rather than better over time.
  • CRPS most often affects one of the arms, legs, hands, or feet. Often the pain spreads to include the entire arm or leg.
  • Typical features include dramatic changes in the color and temperature of the skin over the affected limb or body part, accompanied by intense burning pain, skin sensitivity, sweating, and swelling.

CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST

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