- Swallowing disorders – defined as difficulty in passing food or liquid from the mouth to the stomach – occur in all age groups, but especially in the elderly.
- The disorders can occur at any stage of the normal swallowing process, in which food and liquid move from the mouth, through the pharynx, into the esophagus, and finally, into the stomach.
- The disorders are common in individuals with degenerative neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post-polio syndrome, myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease.
- Is a syndrome observed in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatic encephalopathy is defined as a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities in patients with liver dysfunction, after exclusion of other known brain disease.
- It is characterized by personality changes, intellectual impairment, and a depressed level of consciousness.
- Is a general term that includes various types of seizures.
- People with diagnosed epilepsy have had more than one seizure, and they may have had more than one kind of seizure.
- A seizure happens when abnormal electrical activity in the brain causes an involuntary change in body movement or function, sensation, awareness, or behavior.
- The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, and hand.
- Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Erb-Duchenne (Erb’s) palsy refers to paralysis of the upper brachial plexus.
- Dejerine-Klumpke (Klumpke’s) palsy refers to paralysis of the lower brachial plexus.
- Many brachial plexus injuries happen when a baby’s shoulders become impacted during delivery and the brachial plexus nerves stretch or tear.
- Conditions leading to foot drop may be neurologic, muscular or anatomic in origin, often with significant overlap. Foot drop is characterized by steppage gait.
- When the person with foot drop walks, the foot slaps down onto the floor.
- a deficit in turning the ankle and toes upward. Conditions leading to foot drop may be neurologic, muscular or anatomic in origin.
- GBS is an acute, autoimmune, polyradiculoneuropathy affecting the peripheral nervous system, usually triggered by an acute infectious process.
- It is frequently severe and usually exhibits as an ascending paralysis noted by weakness in the legs that spreads to the upper limbs and the face along with complete loss of deep tendon reflexes.
- Death may occur if severe pulmonary complications and dysautonomia are present.
- Head injuries include both injuries to the brain and those to other parts of the head, such as the scalp and skull.
- Head injuries may be closed or open. A closed (non-missile) head injury is one in which the skull is not broken.
- Brain injuries may be diffuse, occurring over a wide area, or focal, located in a small, specific area.
- Is a term derived from the Greek words “hydro” meaning water, and “cephalus” meaning head, and this condition is sometimes known as “water in the brain”.
- People with this condition have abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles, or cavities, of the brain.
- This may cause increased intracranial pressure inside the skull and progressive enlargement of the head, convulsion, and mental disability.
- Is a condition marked by an abnormal increase in the tightness of muscle tone and a reduced ability of a muscle to stretch (i.e. an increased stiffness).
- It is generally accompanied by (increased) spasticity of the particular muscles.
- Is a restriction in blood supply ( oxygen supply) to an organ or section of the body, generally due to constriction or blocking of blood vessels.
CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.