NEUROLOGY-2MARKS-PART-6

INFLAMMATORY MYOPATHIES:

  • Is a term that defines a group of muscle diseases involving inflammation and degeneration of skeletal muscle tissues.
  • Inclusion body myositis (IBM) mainly affects individuals over the age of 50.
  • The cause of IBM remains unknown, but is thought to be a form of autoimmune disease, where the immune system responds in a harmful manner to the rest of the body.

KLIPPEL-FEIL SYNDROME:

  • Is a rare disorder characterized by the congenital fusion of any 2 of the 7 cervical vertebrae.
  • It is caused by a failure in the normal segmentation or division of the cervical vertebrae during the early weeks of fetal development.
  • Activities that can injure the neck should be avoided.
  • Anomalies associated with the syndrome can be fatal if not treated, or if found too late to be treatable.

LEARNING DISABILITIES:

  • Disorders that affect the ability to understand or use spoken or written language, do mathematical calculations, coordinate movements, or direct attention.

MENINGITIS:

  • Is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges.
  • Meningitis may develop in response to a number of causes, most prominently bacteria, viruses and other infectious agents.
  • Meningitis is a potentially serious condition owing to the proximity of the inflammation to the brain and spinal cord.

MOTOR NEURON DISEASES:

  • Are a group of progressive neurological disorders that destroy motor neurons, the cells that control essential voluntary muscle activity such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing.
  • Upper motor neurons direct the lower motor neurons to produce movements such as walking or chewing.
  • Lower motor neurons control movement in the arms, legs, chest, face, throat, and tongue.

MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY:

  • The muscular dystrophies (MD) are a group of more than 30 genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement.
  • Some forms of MD are seen in infancy or childhood, while others may not appear until middle age or later.
  • The disorders differ in terms of the distribution and extent of muscle weakness (some forms of MD also affect cardiac muscle), age of onset, rate of progression, and pattern of inheritance.
  • Duchenne MD is the most common form of MD and primarily affects boys. It is caused by the absence of dystrophin, a protein involved in maintaining the integrity of muscle.

MYASTHENIA GRAVIS:

  • Is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal (voluntary) muscles of the body.
  • The hallmark of myasthenia gravis is muscle weakness that increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest.
  • Certain muscles such as those that control eye and eyelid movement, facial expression, chewing, talking, and swallowing are often.
  • The muscles that control breathing and neck and limb movements may also be affected.

MYOPATHY:

  • The myopathies are neuromuscular disorders in which the primary symptom is muscle weakness due to dysfunction of muscle fiber.
  • Other symptoms of myopathy can include include muscle cramps, stiffness, and spasm.

CONGENITAL MYOPATHIES:

  • Characterized by developmental delays in motor skills skeletal and facial abnormalities are occasionally evident at birth muscular dystrophies.
  • Characterized by progressive weakness in voluntary muscles sometimes evident at birth.

MITOCHONDRIAL MYOPATHIES:

  • Caused by genetic abnormalities in mitochondria, cellular structures that control energy; include Kearns-Sayre syndrome, MELAS and MERRF.

GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASES OF MUSCLE:

  • Caused by mutations in genes controlling enzymes that metabolize glycogen and glucose (blood sugar) include Pompe’s, Andersen’s and Cori’s diseases.

MYOGLOBINURIAS:

  • Caused by disorders in the metabolism of a fuel (myoglobin) necessary for muscle work include McArdle, Tarui, and DiMauro diseases.

DERMATOMYOSITIS:

  • An inflammatory myopathy of skin and muscle myositis ossificans characterized by bone growing in muscle tissue.

FAMILIAL PERIODIC PARALYSIS:

  • Characterized by episodes of weakness in the arms and legs.
  • polymyositis, inclusion body myositis, and related myopathies:inflammatory myopathies of skeletal muscle.

NEUROMYOTONIA:

  • Characterized by alternating episodes of twitching and stiffness.

STIFF-MAN SYNDROME:

  • Characterized by episodes of rigidity and reflex spasms common muscle cramps and stiffness, and tetany, characterized by prolonged spasms of the arms and legs.

NEUROPATHY:

  • A group of inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system.
  • Within the group there are 4 subcategories of disorders, including hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, hereditary sensory neuropathy, hereditary motor neuropathy, and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy.
  • Symptoms of these disorders vary and may include numbness and tingling in the feet and hands, muscle weakness, scoliosis, thin lower legs, foot deformities, insensitivity to pain, and autonomic symptoms such as impaired sweating, postural hypotension, and skin blotching.

PARESTHESIA:

  • Refers to a burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet.
  • The sensation, which happens without warning, is usually painless and described as tingling or numbness, skin crawling, or itching.

PARKINSON’S DISEASE:

  • Belongs to a group of conditions called motor system disorders, which are the result of the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells.
  • The four primary symptoms of PD are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance and coordination.
  • As the disease progresses, the shaking, or tremor, which affects the majority of PD patients may begin to interfere with daily activities.
  • Other symptoms may include depression and other emotional changes; difficulty in swallowing, chewing, and speaking,urinary problems or constipation; skin problems; and sleep disruptions.

PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY:

  • Describes damage to the peripheral nervous system, the vast communications network that transmits information from the brain and spinal cord to every other part of the body.
  • nerves also send sensory information back to the brain and spinal cord, such as a message that the feet are cold or a finger is burned.

CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.

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