PHYSIOLOGY- 2 MARKS- PART 6:

MICTURITION REFLEX:

  • Elimination of toxic and waste products from the body is called excretion.
  • Micturition is the mode of excretion of urine from the body.  when the urinary bladder is full and starts to stretch.
  • The receptors of the urinary bladder send a signal to the CNS, in response to this CNS sends a signal that stimulates the contraction of the urinary bladder.
  • Through the urinary opening at urethra, we excrete urine.
  • This is called micturition and the neural mechanism is called the micturition reflex.

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PHYSIOLOGY- 2 MARKS- PART 5:

CARBOHYDRATES:

  • Carbohydrates are present in food in the form of starch, sugar and fiber.
  • A carbohydrate is a molecule containing carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, and can be either simple or complex.
  • Monosaccharides are a single sugar molecule, while disaccharides are two simple sugar molecules linked together.
  • More complex carbohydrates are called polysaccharides and are multiple sugar molecules linked together.
  • Carbohydrates are primary energy producers.
  • The two main forms of carbohydrates are: sugars such as fructose, glucose, and lactose. Starches, which are found in foods such as starchy vegetables (like potatoes or corn), grains, rice, breads, and cereals.

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PHYSIOLOGY- 2 MARKS- PART 3:

What is the difference between the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation?

  • Pulmonary circulation only occurs between the heart and the lungs.
  • The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
  • Systemic circulation refers to the circulation of blood in which oxygenated blood is pumped from the heart to the body and deoxygenated blood is returned back to the heart.
  • Systemic circulation occurs between the heart and the entire body.
  • SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

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PHYSIOLOGY- 2 MARKS- PART 2:

COAGULATION TIME:

  • The coagulation time is a measurement of the intrinsic power of the blood to convert fibrinogen to fibrin.
  • PT (The prothrombin time ) is measured in seconds. Most of the time, results are given as what is called INR(international normalized ratio).
  • If you are not taking blood thinning medicines, such as warfarin, the normal range for your PT results is: 11 to 13.5 seconds.

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PHYSIOLOGY-2 MARKS-PART-1

MITOCHONDRIA:

  • Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell.
  • They are organelles that act like a digestive system which takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy rich molecules for the cell.
  • Mitochondria are a part of eukaryotic cells.
  • The main job of mitochondria is to perform cellular respiration.
  • This means it takes in nutrients from the cell, breaks it down, and turns it into energy.
  • This energy is then in turn used by the cell to carry out various functions.

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