GENERAL MEDICINE & OG: PART 4

PNEUMONIA:

Pneumonia is a serious disease which affects your lungs and makes it difficult for you to breath inflammation or infection of the alveoli of the lungs of varying degrees of severity and caused by bacteria, viruses, etc.


PULMONARY INFRACTION:

A pulmonary infarction is the death of a portion of lung tissue caused by an interruption of its blood supply, most commonly due to blockage in the blood vessels supplying the lung tissue.

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MORINGA –miracle tree for your health.

  • It is also known as the Drumstick tree, due to it’s long, thin branches and triangular shaped seed pods.
  • It has been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of ailments. Today it is a popular health “superfood”

  •  Moringa is a powerhouse of important minerals like iron,potassium,magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and calcium, as well as rich in 18 out of the 20 essential amino acids.
  • Moringa is said to have the highest protein ration of any plant studied so far, with the leaves containing approximately 40% protein.

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NEUROLOGY- 2 MARKS- PART 9

DERMATOMES:

  • A dermatome is the area of sensory nerves near the skin that are supplied by a specific spinal nerve root.
  • The body can be divided into regions that are mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve.
  • There are eight cervical (one for the head, and one for each cervical vertebra), twelve thoracic, five lumbar and five sacral spinal nerves. Dermatomes are useful for finding the site of damage to the spine. 

ATHETOSIS:

  • Involuntary writhing movements, particularly of the arms and hands. Athetosis is associated with several neurological disorders, such as cerebral palsy and Rett syndrome.


LONG TERM MEMORY:

  • Long-term memory refers to the storage of information over an extended period.
  • If you can remember something that happened more than just a few moments ago whether it occurred just hours ago or decades earlier, then it is a long-term memory.


BERG BALANCE SCALE:

  • Berg Balance Scale The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) was developed to measure balance among older people with impairment in balance function by assessing the performance of functional tasks.
  • It is a valid instrument used for evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions and for quantitative descriptions of function in clinical practice and research.

Equipment needed:

Ruler, two standard chairs (one with arm rests, one without), footstool or step, stopwatch or wristwatch, 15 ft walkway

Time: 15-20 minutes

Scoring: A five-point scale, ranging from 0-4. “0” indicates the lowest level of function and “4” the highest level of function. Total Score = 5

Interpretation: 41-56 = low fall risk 21-40 = medium fall risk 0 –20 = high fall risk


AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCELEROSIS:

  •  A classic motor neuron disease. Motor neuron diseases are progressive chronic diseases of the nerves that come from the spinal cord responsible for supplying electrical stimulation to the muscles.
  • The disease is therefore usually referred to simply as ALS.

    INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE:

    Increased intracranial pressure is a rise in the pressure inside the skull that can result from or cause brain injury.

    Many conditions can increase intracranial pressure. Common causes include:

    • Aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage
    • Brain tumor
    • Encephalitis irritation and swelling, or inflammation, of the brain)
    • Head injury
    • Hydrocephalus(increased fluid around the brain)
    • Hypertensive brain hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain from high blood pressure)

    WERNICKE’S ENCEPHALOPATHY:


CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSICAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.