PATHOLOGY-2MARKS-PART-1

NECROSIS:

  • The death of living cells or tissues. Necrosis can be due, for example, to ischemia (lack of blood flow). From the Greek “nekros” (dead body).
  • Aseptic necrosis necrosis without infection or inflammation.
  • Balser’s fatty necrosis gangrenous pancreatitis with omental bursitis and disseminated patches of necrosis of fatty tissues.
  • Acute tubular necrosis acute renal failure with mild to severe damage or necrosis of tubule cells, usually secondary to either nephrotoxicity, ischemia after major surgery, trauma , severe hypovolemia, sepsis, or burns.
  • Central necrosis necrosis affecting the central portion of an affected bone, cell, or lobule of the liver.

TYPES OF CALCIFICATION:

  • Calcification happens when calcium builds up in body tissue, blood vessels, or organs. This buildup can harden and disrupt your body’s normal processes. Calcium is transported through the bloodstream.
  • Small and large arteries
  • Heart valves
  • Brain, where it is known as cranial calcification
  • Joints and tendons, such as knee joints and rotator cuff tendons
  • Soft tissues like breasts, muscles, and fat
  • Kidney, bladder, and gallbladder
  • Some calcium buildup is harmless. These deposits are believed to be the body’s response to inflammation, injury, or certain biological processes.

CLASSIFY CELL INJURY:

When the limits of adaptive responses are exceeded cell injury occurs, initially reversibl, then irreversible leading to cell death. Necrosis severe cell swelling or cell rupture, denaturation and coagulation of cytoplasmic proteins and breakdown of cell organelles.

The effects of injury depend on

  • Type,duration and severity of injury.
  • Type of injured tissue, its adaptability and genetic makeup
  •  E.g. brain tissue is very sensitive to hypoxia (2-5 min)
  • Skeletal muscles can adapt hypoxia for (2-6 hours)

EDEMA:

  • Edema is swelling caused by fluid retention – excess fluid is trapped in the body’s tissues. Swelling caused by edema commonly occurs in the hands, arms, ankles, legs and feet. It is usually linked to the venous or lymphatic systems.
  • Pitting edema is the term used to describe edema when pressure applied to the skin of the swollen area is released and an indentation is left behind (e.g. when the skin is pressed with a finger or when stockings or socks induce indentation).
  • Non-pitting edema usually occurs in the arms and legs.

ATROPHY:

  • Decrease in size or wasting away of a body part or tissue. Muscle atrophy is when muscles waste away. The main reason for muscle wasting is a lack of physical activity. This can happen when a disease or injury makes it difficult or impossible for you to move an arm or leg.

CONGESTIVE CARDIAC FAILURE:

Heart failure is caused by many conditions that damage the heart muscle, including:

  • Coronary artery disease
  • heart attack
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Conditions that overwork the heart.

What Are the Types of Heart Failure:

  • Systolic dysfunction (or systolic heart failure)
  • Diastolic dysfunction (or diastolic heart failure

ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE:

  • When arteries are narrowed, less blood and oxygen reaches the heart muscle. This is also called coronary artery disease and coronary heart disease.
  • This can ultimately lead to heart attack. Ischemia often causes chest pain or discomfort known as angina pectoris.
  • Coronary artery (atherosclerotic) heart disease that affects the arteries to the heart
  • Valvular heart disease that affects how the valves function to regulate blood flow in and out of the heart
  • Cardiomyopathy that affects how the heart muscle squeezes
  • Heart rhythm disturbances (arrhythmias) that affect the electrical conduction
  • Heart infections where the heart has structural problems that develop before birth.

VARIOUS TYPES OF COPD:

  • Chronic bronchitis, which involves a long-term cough with mucus.
  • Emphysema, which involves damage to the lungs over time.

Chronic bronchitis is a long-term inflammation of the bronchi (breathing passages in the lungs), which results in increased production of mucus, as well as other changes.

Emphysema is a chronic lung condition in which alveoli (air sacs in the lungs) may be:

  • Destroyed
  • Narrowed
  • Collapsed
  • Stretched
  • Over-inflated.

MILIARY TUBERCULOSIS:

  • Miliary tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis that is characterized by a wide dissemination into the human body and by the tiny size of the lesions (1–5 mm). Miliary tuberculosis is present in about 2% of all reported cases of tuberculosis and accounts for up to 20% of all extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases.
  • Miliary tuberculosis (TB) is the widespread dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  via hematogenous spread. Classic miliary TB is defined as milletlike (mean, 2 mm; range, 1-5 mm) seeding of TB bacilli in the lung, as evidenced on chest radiography.

SEQUESTRUM:

  • A piece of dead bone tissue formed within a diseased or injured bone, typically in chronic osteomyelitis.


CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.

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