PATHOLOGY-2MARKS-PART-2

LEPRA CELLS:

  • Distinctive, large, mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages) with a foamlike cytoplasm, and also poorly staining saclike structures resulting from degeneration of such cells, observed characteristically in leprous inflammatory reactions.
  • Indistinct staining results from numerous, fairly closely packed leprosy bacilli, which are acid fast and resistant to staining by ordinary methods.

GRANULOMA:

  • A granuloma is a small area of inflammation tissue. It is caused by a collection of immune system cells, as a result of chronic inflammation.
  • Granulomas often occur in the lungs, but can occur elsewhere in the body. Granulomas occur in conditions such as sarcoidosis, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and tuberculosis.

GRANULATION TISSUE:

  • Granulation tissue is formed at the site of an injury and is composed of rich collagen. Slowly as the injury tries to heal, this tissue fills up the space and leaves a mark or scar at the place of injury.
  •  Granulation tissue typically grows from the base of a wound and is able to fill wounds of almost any size.
  • This scar many times fades away or can be dimmed by using various scar removing or lightening creams.

BENIGN AND MALIGNANT TUMORS:

  • There are two main classifications of tumors. One is known as benign and the other as malignant.
  • A benign tumor is a tumor that does not invade its surrounding tissue or spread around the body.
  • A malignant tumor is a tumor that may invade its surrounding tissue or spread around the body.

TYPES OF BENIGN TUMORS:

  • Adenoma
  • Fibromas
  • Haemangiomas
  • Lipomas.
  • Osteochondromas
  • Papillomas

TYPES OF MALIGNANT TUMORS:

  • Sarcoma
  • Lymphoma/Leukemia
  • Germ cell tumor
  • Blastoma.

NEOPLASIA :

  • Neoplasia occurs when there is an atypical proliferation of cell growth. This results in an abnormal tissue mass known as a neoplasm.
  • The neoplasm continues to exceed the growth of the normal tissues surrounding it, causing the formation of a lump or tumor.
  • Neoplasms come in benign or non-cancerous, pre-malignant, and malignant tumors.

HYPERPLASIA :

  • The definition of hyperplasia is an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue.
  • An example of hyperplasia is when the cells near your heart begin to reproduce so rapidly and abnormally that your organs are impaired due to their enlargement from excessive cell growth.

HYPERTROPHY:

  • Hypertrophy is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.
  • It is distinguished from hyperplasia, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number.

ATELECTASIS :

An airway blockage also can cause atelectasis. A blockage may be due to a foreign object (such as an inhaled peanut), a mucus plug, lung cancer, or a poorly placed breathing tube from a ventilator. When a blockage occurs, the air that’s already in the air sacs is absorbed into the bloodstream.


APOPTOSIS :

A form of cell death in which a programmed sequence of events leads to the elimination of cells without releasing harmful substances into the surrounding area. Apoptosis plays a crucial role in developing and maintaining the health of the body by eliminating old cells, unnecessary cells, and unhealthy cells.


OSTEOMYELITIS :

A bone infection, also called osteomyelitis, can result when bacteria or fungi invade a bone. In children, bone infections most commonly occur in the long bones of the arms and legs. In adults, they usually appear in the hips, spine, and feet.


CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.

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