PHYSIOLOGY- 2 MARKS- PART 6:

MICTURITION REFLEX:

  • Elimination of toxic and waste products from the body is called excretion.
  • Micturition is the mode of excretion of urine from the body.  when the urinary bladder is full and starts to stretch.
  • The receptors of the urinary bladder send a signal to the CNS, in response to this CNS sends a signal that stimulates the contraction of the urinary bladder.
  • Through the urinary opening at urethra, we excrete urine.
  • This is called micturition and the neural mechanism is called the micturition reflex.

DIALYSIS:

  • The kidneys filter your blood by removing waste and excess fluid from your body.
  • This waste is sent to the bladder to be eliminated when you urinate.
  • Dialysis is a treatment that filters and purifies the blood using a machine.
  • This helps keep your fluids and electrolytes in balance when the kidneys can’t do their job.
  • Without dialysis, salts and other waste products will accumulate in the blood, poison the body, and damage other organs.

DIURESIS:

  • Diuresis refers to a rise in urine production by the kidneys.
  • A person affected with Diuresis loses a great amount of water along with essential mineral salts through excessive urination.
  • Diuresis is often seen in patients suffering from kidney failure.
  • Diuresis Types :
    • Rebound Diuresis – This type of diuresis occurs to people who are under the recovery process of kidney problem.
    • Immersion Diuresis – Sudden fall in body temperature and increase in blood pressure will induce urine production. Sometimes, when the body is exposed to extreme cold temperature, this would increase the urine production.
    • Post Obstructive Diuresis – In this type, more urine is produced when a person has just recovered from urinary blockage.

GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE:

  • GFR – glomerular filtration rate is the best test to measure the level of kidney function and determine the stage of kidney disease.
  • When albumin in urine it is called albuminuria.
  • Blood or protein in the urine can be an early sign of kidney disease.
  • People with a high amount of albumin in their urine are at an increased risk of having chronic kidney disease progress to kidney failure.

ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES:


HORMONES SECRETED BY ADRENAL MEDULLA:

 


ELISA:

  • The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also known as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), detects HIV antibodies and antigens in the blood.
  • HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system.
  • If HIV infection isn’t treated, a person can develop AIDS, which is a prolonged and often fatal condition.
  • To test for HIV, a series of blood screenings may be done, including one called the ELISA test.

Dwarfism:

Dwarfism is generally defined as an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches (147 centimeters) or less.

The average adult height among people with dwarfism is 4 feet (122 cm).

It may be the result of a developmental anomaly, of nutritionalor hormone deficiencies, or of other diseases.

Types:

  • Disproportionate dwarfism
  • Proportionate dwarfism

Dwarfism-related conditions are genetic disorders. Some of the conditions are:

  • Achondroplasia
  • Turner syndrome
  • Growth hormone deficiency.

ACROMEGALY:

  • Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that develops when pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone during adulthood.
  • When this happens, bones increase in size, including  hands, feet and face.
  • Acromegaly usually affects middle-aged adults.
  • In children who are still growing, too much growth hormone can cause a condition called gigantism.
  • These children have exaggerated bone growth and an abnormal increase in height.

ANSWER 2:

  • Acromegaly is caused by the pituitary gland overproducing growth hormone (GH) over time.
  • The pituitary, a small gland situated at the base of your brain behind the bridge of your nose, produces a number of hormones.
  • GH plays an important role in managing your physical growth.

HYPERTHYROIDISM:

  • Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is overactive and makes excessive amounts of thyroid hormone.
  • The thyroid gland is an organ located in the front of your neck and releases hormones that control your metabolism, breathing, heart rate, nervous system, weight, body temperature, and many other functions in the body.
  • When the thyroid gland is overactive (hyperthyroidism) the body’s processes speed up and experience nervousness, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, hand tremor, excessive sweating, weight loss, and sleep problems, among other symptoms.

CRETINISM:

  • Cretinism is a congenital disorder, meaning it is present at birth.
  • In this disorder, there is decreased or absent thyroid function as well as the production of thyroid hormone.
  • If this condition is not treated in time, it may result in severe stunted mental and physical growth of a baby.
  • The condition is also referred to as congenital hypothyroidism.

 

 

  • ENDEMIC CRETINISM
  • NEUROLOGICAL CRETINISM
  • MYXEDAMATOUS CRETINISM

SPERMATOGENESIS:

  • Spermatogenesis, the origin and development of the sperm cells within the male reproductive organs, the testes.
  • The testes are composed of numerous thin, tightly coiled tubules known as the seminiferous tubules; the sperm cells are produced within the walls of the tubules.
  • Within the walls of the tubules, also, are many randomly scattered cells, called Sertoli cells.

OOGENESIS:

  • Oogenesis is the process of development of female gametes or ova or egg that takes place in ovaries.
  • The process of oogenesis begins before birth with the formation of diploid germ cells, called oogonia that have the ability to develop into mature ova.
  • The majority of these oogonia degenerate prior to birth and the remaining enter first meiotic division as primary oocytes (also called as immature ova).
  • No new primary oocyte will be produced after birth.
  • The final phase of egg development is completed only if the egg is fertilized by a sperm.

MENOPAUSE:

  • Menopause is the time when your menstrual periods stop permanently and  can no longer get pregnant.
  • After menopause, The body makes much less of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
  • Very low estrogen levels after menopause can affect  health and cause symptoms such as hot flashes.

PARTS OF SPERM:


Hormones of testis:

  • There are 2 testes, that are oval shaped and located behind the penis within the scrotum.
  • The testes have two functions – to produce sperm and to produce hormones, particularly testosterone.
  • Testosterone is an androgenic hormone.
  • Testosterone is secreted by the Leydig cells.
  • Anti-Müllerian hormone is important in the development of the reproductive tract for the male foetus.


DRAW AND LABEL THE PARTS OF OVARY:


OVULATION:

  • Ovulation is when the ovary releases an egg into the fallopian tube. This usually occurs mid cycle.
  • Expected to ovulate on or around cycle day 14 (counting from the first day of your period).
  • Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
  • In humans, this event occurs when the follicles rupture and release the secondary oocyte ovarian cells.
  • After ovulation, during the luteal phase, the egg will be available to be fertilized by sperm.

CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSICAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.

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