SPINA BIFIDA: PART 1

3RD YEAR BPT. VINAYAKA MISSIONS COLLEGE OF PHYSIOTHERAPY.

  • SOUNDARYA
  • VISHWA
  • KOWSALYA
  • IMMAN BABU
  • VASANTH KUMAR.

DEFINE SPINA BIFIDA?

  • IT IS A BIRTH DEFECT WHERE THERE IS INCOMPLETE CLOSING OF THE BACK BONE AND MEMBRANES AROUND THE SPINAL CORD.
  • IT OFTEN CAUSES PARALYSIS OF THE LOWER LIMB AND SOMETIME LEARNING DIFFICULTIES.

TYPES OF SPINA BIFIDA?

  • SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA
  • MENINGOCELE
  • MYELO MENINGOCELE

WHAT IS SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA?

  • SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA IS A COMMON MALFORMATION OF THE SPINE.
  • IT OCCURS DURING A BABY’S IN ITS MOTHER’S WOMB, USUALLY IN THE FIRST MONTH OF PREGNANCY.

SYMPTOMS OF SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA?

  • BACK PAIN
  • LEG WEAKNESS
  • PAIN IN THE BACK OF THE LEG
  • LOSS OF BLADDER OR BOWEL CONTROL.
  • SCOLIOSIS
  • NUMBNESS IN THE BACK LEG
  • MISSHAPEN LEG AND FEET.

MENINGOCELE?

  • PROTRUSION OF THE MEMBRANES THAT COVER THE SPINE AND PART OF THE SPINAL CORD THROUGH A BONE DEFECT IN THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN.
  • PROTRUSION OF THE MENINGES THROUGH AN OPENING IN THE SKULL OR SPINAL COLUMN, FORMING A BULGE OR SAC FILLED WITH CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.

SYMPTOMS OF MENINGOCELE?

  • INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS.
  • TROUBLE WITH BLADDER CONTROL
  • NUMBNESS
  • PARALYSIS
  • NERVE INJURY
  • INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.

DEFINE MYELOMENINGOCELE?

  • MYELOMENINGOCELE IS A DEFECT OF BACK BONE AND SPINAL CORD.
  • BEFORE BIRTH, THE BABY’S SPINE THE SPINAL CORD AND SPINAL CORD DO NOT FORM OR CLOSE NORMALLY.
  • A MYELOMENINGOCELE IS THE MOST SERIOUS FORM OF SPINA BIFIDA.

SYMPTOMS OF MYELOMENINGOCELE?

  • LOSS OF SENSATION
  • BOWEL AND BLADDER PROBLEM
  • PARALYSIS
  • ORTHOPEDIC DEFORMIIES
  • HYDROCEPHALUS
  • CHIARI MALFORMATION
  • SEIZURES.

DEFINE BIFIDA CYSTIA?

  • A BONY DEFECT IN THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN THE CAUSE A CLEFT INN THE COLUMN
  • THE MENINGEAL MEMBRANE THAT COVER THE SPINAL AND PART OF THE SPINAL CORD PROTRUDE THROUGH THESE CLEFT & ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE.
  • THE OPENING CAN BE SURGICALLY REPAIRED USUALLY SHORTLY AFTER BIRTH.

RISK FACTOR IN SPINA BIFIDA?

  • FALATE DFICIECY
  • SOME MEDICATION
  • DIABETES
  • OBESITY
  • INCREASED BODY TEMPERATURE.

WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATION INN SPINNA BIFIDA?

  • THE SIZE AND LOCATION OF THE NEURAL TUBE DEFECT.
  • WHETHER SKIN COVER THE AFFECTED AREA.
  • WHICH SPINAL NERVES COME OUT OF THE AFFECTED AREA OF THE SPINAL CORD.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS IN SPINA BIFIDA?

  • LEG WEAKNESS AND PARALYSIS
  • ORTHOPEDIC ABNORMALITIES.
  • BOWEL AND BLADDER PROBLEM
  • ABNORMAL EYE MOVEMENT
  • URINARY TRACT INJECTION.

COMPLICATION IN MENINGOMYELOMA?

  • INCREASED INTRA CRANIAL PRESSURE
  • VENTRICULITIS AND MENINGITIS
  • HYDROCEPHALUS
  • CEREBRAL PALSY
  • EPILEPSY
  • MENTAL RETARDATION.

PREVENTION OF SPINA BIFIDA?

  • 400 MICROGRAM OF FOLIC ACID EVERY DAY.
  • STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT IF ALL WOMEN WHO COULD BECOME PREGNANT WERE TO TAKE A MULTI VITAMIN WITH THE B- VITAMIN FOLIC ACID, THE RISK OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS COULD BE REDUCED BY UP TO 70%.

DIAGNOSIS OF SPINA BIFIDA?

  • PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS
  • BLOOD TEST
  • MENTERNAL SERUM ALPHA FEETOPROTEIN TEST (MSAFPT)
  • ULTRA SOUND
  • POST NATAL DIAGNOSIS
  • X – RAY OF THE LOWER SPINE
  • CT SCAN
  • MRI SCAN.

TREATMENT OF SPINA BIFIDA?

  • CARBAMAZEPINE – DURING PREGNANCY
  • SURGICAL TREATMENT:-
  • CLOSING THE SPINAL ARCHES WITHHOUT DAMAGINNG THE SPINAL NERVES.
  • SPINAL OSTEOTOMY
  • AFTER SURGERY DO CSF SHUNT

CAUSES OF SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA?

  • DIPLOMYELIA – DUPLICATION OF THE SPINAL CORD.
  • DIASTEMATOMYELIA – BONY SEPTUM THAT DIVIDE THE SPINAL CORD.
  • MYELODYSPLASIA – DEVELOPMENTAL DEFECT OF THE SPINNAL CORD.
  • ERRORS IN SKELETAL SEGMENTATION.

INVESTIGATION OF SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA?

  • AMNIOCENTESIS:-
  • 16 – 18 WEEKS OF PREGNANCY
  • INCREASED ALPHA – FETOPROTEIN
  • INCREASED ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE
  • ULTRA SOUND EXAMINATION
  • MRI SCAN.

SYRINGOMYELOCELE?

  • IN THE CONDITION OF SYRINGOMYELOCELE, THERE IS DISTENTION OF THE CENTRAL CANAL OF THE CORD ASSOCIATED WITH PROTRUSION OF SPINAL CORD OUT OF THE BONY DEFECT.

DEFINE MYELOCELE?

  • IN MYELOCELE, THE NEURAL CANAL ITSELF IS OPEN AND THERE IA AN ELONGATED FISSURE WITHH A GROSS SPINAL DEFECT ON THE BACK.

VARIOUS DEFORMITIES IN MYELOMENINGOCELE?

  • SPINE – KYPHOSCOLIOSIS
  • HIP – FLEXION, ABDUCTION DEFORMITIES
  • KNEE – FLEXION DEFORMITIES
  • FOOT & LEG – EQUINO VARUS AND VALGUS DEFORMITIES.

ANTERIOR SPINA BIFIDA?

  • ANTERIOR SPINA BIFIDA IS A RARE CONDITION IN WHICH THE SEGMENT OF VERTEBRAL BODY FAIL TO FUSE.

EMBRYOLOGY OF SPINA BIFIDA?

  • ONCE THE NEURAL CANAL IS FORMED THE SURFACE ECTODERM, THERE IS A SHEET OF MESODERM ANTERIOR TO IT THAT DEVELOPMENT INTO THE NOTOCHORD.
  • TWO PROJECTION ARISE FROM THE BODY THAT GROW AROUND THE NEURAL CANAL TO FORM THE VERTEBRAL ARCH.

TEAM WORK

3RD YEAR BPT., VMCPT.

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