.The heart wall is comprised of three layers, the epicardium (outer), myocardium (middle), and endocardium (inner). These tissue layers are highly specialized and perform different functions.
The epicardium is a thin layer of elastic connective tissue and fat that serves as an additional layer of protection from trauma or friction for the heart under the pericardium.
The middle layer of the heart wall is the myocardium—the muscle tissue of the heart and the thickest layer of the heart wall. It is composed of cardiac muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes.

The inner layer of the heart wall is the endocardium, composed of endothelial cells that provide a smooth, elastic, non-adherent surface for blood collection and pumping.


The outer layer of the heart wall is the epicardium. The epicardium refers to both the outer layer of the heart and the inner layer of the serous visceral pericardium, which is attached to the outer wall of the heart. The epicardium is a thin layer of elastic connective tissue and fat that serves as an additional layer of protection from trauma or friction for the heart under the pericardium. This layer contains the coronary blood vessels, which oxygenate the tissues of the heart with a blood supply from the coronary arteries.


The mediastinum is a broad central compartment of the thoracic cavity. It separates the two laterally placed pleural cavities, and is enclosed on each side by the mediastinal pleura. The mediastinum contains all of the thoracic viscera and structures except for the lungs. It also serves as a pathway for the esophagus, thoracic duct, and several components of the nervous system, allowing them to traverse through the thorax on their way to the abdomen.


The pulmonary pleurae are the two pleurae of the invaginated sac surrounding each lung and attaching to the thoracic cavity. visceral pleura is the delicate serous membrane that covers the surface of each lung (the lung parenchyma) and dips into the fissures between the lobes. The parietal pleura is the outer membrane which is attached to the inner surface of the thoracic cavity.


The aorta is the largest artery in the body and is divided into 3 parts: the ascending aorta, arch of the aorta, and descending aorta. The blood  is pumped from the left ventricle into the aorta and from there branches to all parts of the body. The ascending aorta has two small branches, the left and right coronary arteries, that provide blood to the heart muscle.



The region of the aorta that changes direction between the ascending and descending aorta.


The region of the aorta directly attached to the heart that passes superiorly towards the head.


The region of the aorta that passes inferiorly towards the feet.


There are 10 bronchopulmonary segments in the right lung (3 in the superior lobe, 2 in the middle lobe, 5 in the inferior lobe), and 8 segments in the left lung (4 in the upper lobe, 4 in the lower lobe). A layer of connective tissue separates each segment from the next. During development, there are initially 10 segments per lung, but since the left lung only has 2 lobes, 2 pairs of bronchopulmonary segments fuse to give 8 total segments, with 4 for each lobe. The right lung retains all 10 segments.


Tibialis Anterior

ORIGIN: Lateral epicondyle of the tibia

INSERTION: 1st cuneiform and 1st metarsal base

ACTION: Inversion of the foot (sole to sole), dorsiflexion of the ankle


Tibialis Posterior

ORIGIN: Posterior Tibia & Fibula,

INERSTION: Base of the navicular bone

ACTION:  Inversion of the foot, plantarflexion of the ankle


Clubfoot also called talipes equinovarus. Most types of clubfoot are present at birth (congenital clubfoot). Clubfoot can happen in one foot or in both feet. In almost half of affected infants, both feet are involved.

The foot (especially the heel) is usually smaller than normal.

The foot may point downward.

The front of the foot may be rotated toward the other foot.

The foot may turn in, and in extreme cases, the bottom of the foot can point up


The plantarflexors are a group of nine muscles: The gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head, soleus, plantaris, tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, fibularis longus, and fibularis brevis The gastrocnemius muscles are the largest and most evident superficially of the plantarflexors. This two-headed muscle group can be seen at the back of the lower leg.


The filum terminale is a filament of connective tissue that extends inferiorly from the apex of the conus medullaris. The filum terminale is continuous with the pia mater and is described as having two sections:

  • filum terminale internum: upper three quarters of the filum; covered by the spinal dura and arachnoid meninges
  • filum terminale externum: lower quarter of the filum; fuses with the investing dura mater and continues inferiorly to attach to the dorsal coccyx.


One of the last two ribs. A rib is said to be “floating” if it does not attach to the sternum (the   Breast bone) or to another rib.

There are usually 12 pairs of ribs in all. Each pair of ribs is attached to the building blocks of the spine (the vertebrae) in the back. The 12 pairs of ribs consist of:

  • True ribs: The first seven ribs attach to the sternum (the Breast bone) in the front and are known as true (or sternal) ribs.
  • False ribs: The lower five ribs do not directly connect to the sternum and are known as false ribs.


The trachea, commonly known as the windpipe, is a tube about 4 inches long and less than an inch in diameter in most people. The trachea begins just under the larynx (voice box) and runs down behind the breastbone (sternum). The trachea then divides into two smaller tubes called bronchi: one bronchus for each lung.

The trachea is composed of about 20 rings of tough cartilage. The back part of each ring is made of muscle and connective tissue. Moist, smooth tissue called mucosa lines the inside of the trachea. The trachea widens and lengthens slightly with each breath in, returning to its resting size with each breath out.


There are two parts that make up an intervertebral disc: the nucleus pulposus, or inner layer, and the annulus fibrosis, or outer layer. The nucleus pulposus is gel-like fluid that acts as a shock absorber. The annulus fibrosus surrounds the nucleus pulposus and is made of strong, fibrous cartilage that gives the disc structure and enables even weight distribution of neighboring vertebrae.


extracapsular arterieal ring at the base of the femoral neck;
– formed posteriorly by large branch of MFCA
– formed anteriorly by smaller branches of LFCA
– superior & inferior gluteal artery have minor contributions




By drcathyhappy2serve

Hi. My name’s Cathy.And I’m glad to see you here. Here’s what you really need to know about me:I am a big fan of Body and Health. I love to learn about it. I love to grow in it. And I love to help others develop as Healthy Human.. And… I’m not a fan of technology. So a Web-Site might seem like an odd fit for me. So why am I here online? Because you are. For many years I’ve been able to help People through Consultation at Clinic, Conference at public, as a trainer Fitness Centre , and as articles in books. But in this 21st Century, more and more people are searching for resources on the Internet. So it’s time for me to bring my material to the world of computers. I hope to provide you with Physical Fitness teaching that is both timeless and timely. I’ll let you in on my book writing process. I’ll tell you what I’m reading. And occasionally, I’ll tell you what I think about what’s currently happening in the world of Physical Fitness and Health Conciousness — around the world. My hope is that what you find here will add value to your life and give you the tools to achieve your goals as a Healthy Human Being.

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