The oesophagus is a fibromuscular tube, approximately 25cm in length, that transports food from the pharynx to the stomach. It originates at the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage, C6, extending to the cardiac orifice of the stomach.

It descends downward into the superior mediastinum of the thorax. Here, it is situated between the trachea and the vertebral bodies T1 to T4. It then enters the abdomen by piercing the muscular right crus of the diaphragm, through the oesophageal hiatus (simply, a hole in the diaphragm) at the T10 level.


Millions of tiny finger-like structures called villi project inwards from the lining of the small intestine. The large surface area they present allows for rapid absorption of digestion products.

Intestinal villi (singular villus) consist of a central core made of one artery, one vein, a small muscle, a lymphatic capillary and connective tissues that support the overall structure of a single villus.

The blood vessels transport proteins and carbohydrates away from food and into the body. The muscle strand allows villi to expand and contract.


Origin: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus, the radical collateral ligament, the supinator crest of the ulna, and the radial collateral and annular ligaments.
Insertion: Proximal portion of the anterolateral surface of the radius
Action: Supination of the forearm
Blood Supply: Radial recurrent artery from the radial artery
Innervation: Radial Nerve (C6, 7, 8)


Origin: Volar surface of the pisiform, the tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris, and the pisohamate ligament
 Medial aspect of the base of the proximal phalanx of the fifth digit and, occasionally, a slip to the ulnar side of the extensor apparatus of the fifth digit
Action:  Abduction of the fifth digit
Blood Suppy: Deep palmar branches of the radial artery
Innervation: Ulnar nerve (C8, T1).





By drcathyhappy2serve

Hi. My name’s Cathy.And I’m glad to see you here. Here’s what you really need to know about me:I am a big fan of Body and Health. I love to learn about it. I love to grow in it. And I love to help others develop as Healthy Human.. And… I’m not a fan of technology. So a Web-Site might seem like an odd fit for me. So why am I here online? Because you are. For many years I’ve been able to help People through Consultation at Clinic, Conference at public, as a trainer Fitness Centre , and as articles in books. But in this 21st Century, more and more people are searching for resources on the Internet. So it’s time for me to bring my material to the world of computers. I hope to provide you with Physical Fitness teaching that is both timeless and timely. I’ll let you in on my book writing process. I’ll tell you what I’m reading. And occasionally, I’ll tell you what I think about what’s currently happening in the world of Physical Fitness and Health Conciousness — around the world. My hope is that what you find here will add value to your life and give you the tools to achieve your goals as a Healthy Human Being.

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