1.ARTICULAR SURFACE OF HIP JOINT:
The Hip Joint Is A Ball And Socket Synovial Joint, Formed By An Articulation Between The Pelvic Acetabulum And The Head Of The Femur. It forms a connection from the lower limb to the pelvic girdle, and thus is designed for stability and weight-bearing – rather than a large range of movement.
The acetabulum is a cup-like depression located on the inferolateral aspect of the pelvis. Its cavity is deepened by the presence of a fibrocartilaginous collar – the acetabular labrum. The head of femur is hemispherical, and fits completely into the concavity of the acetabulum.
2.MEDIAL ROTATORS OF HIP:
- Gluteus medius
- Gluteus minimus
- Tensor fasciae latae
- All the three muscles are innervated by Superior gluteal nerve.
3.BOOLD SUPPLY OF HIP JOINT: ( TWO DIFFERENT ANSWERS)
A.The arterial supply to the hip joint is largely via the medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries – branches of the profunda femoris artery (deep femoral artery). They anastomose at the base of the femoral neck to form a ring, from which smaller arteries arise to supply the hip joint itself.
B.There are two sets of arteries that contribute the vascularisation of the joint capsule of the hip. The major contributing set contains the medial and lateral circumflex arteries that arise from the deep branch of the femoral artery. Damage to the medial circumflex femoral artery can result in avascular necrosis of the femoral head.
4.ARTICULAR SURFACE OF KNEE JOINT:
The knee joint is a synovial hinge joint. It is unstable joint. Three bones come together to form the joint, which are the femur, tibia and patella.
There are also two articulations involved. One is the tibiofemoral articulation, connecting the proximal tibia to the distal femur, while the other is the patellofemoral one, connecting the patella to the femur. The frontal side of the distal femur forms the patellar surface, which articulates with the patella. The groove between the condyles is called the intercondylar groove.
The plantarflexors are a group of nine muscles:
The gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head, soleus, plantaris, tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, fibularis longus, and fibularis brevis. The gastrocnemius muscles are the largest and most evident superficially of the plantarflexors.
The dorsiflexors comprise four muscles:
Tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus and fibularis tertius. The largest and most evident of these muscles is the tibialis anterior, which can be seen superficially in the front of the lower leg.
- Tibialis posterior
- Tibialis anterior
- Peroneus longus
- Peroneus brevis
- Peroneus tertius
9. CLUB FOOT:
Clubfoot also called talipes equinovarus. Clubfoot describes a range of foot abnormalities usually present at birth (congenital). The foot (especially the heel) is usually smaller than normal. The front of the foot may be rotated toward the other foot. Clubfoot can happen in one foot or in both feet. Clubfoot can be mild or severe.
CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST