ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINTS:

  • The facet joints, (or zygapophysial joints, zygapophyseal, apophyseal, or Z-joints) are a set of synovial, plane joints between the articular processes of two adjacent vertebrae.
  • The Facet Joints, also known as the Zygapophyseal Joints, are located closer to the back of the spine, where they project above and below the vertebral arch.
  • These joints also allow for movement of the spine, as well as providing for stability of the overall structure.

SYNARTHROSES:

  • Synarthroses are called as Fixed Joints.
  • A type of joint which permits very little or no movement under normal conditions.

UNIAXIAL JOINT:

  • The knee joint is classified as a synovial joint.
  • The knee falls under the uniaxial as it is a hinge joint and it moves in one plane with slight rotational movement, but the rotation is not enough to be considered significant.

CUBITAL VALGUS:

  • Cubitus valgus is a medical deformity in which the forearm is angled away from the body to a greater degree than normal when fully extended.
  • A small degree of cubitus valgus (known as the carrying angle) is acceptable and occurs in the general population.

CUBITAL VARUS:

  • Cubitus varus (varus means a deformity of a limb in which part of it is deviated towards the midline of the body) is a common deformity in which the extended forearm is deviated towards midline of the body.
  • Cubitus varus is often referred to as “Gunstock deformity”, due to the crooked nature of the healing.

CARRYING ANGEL:

  • When your arms are held out at your sides and your palms are facing forward, your forearm and hands should normally be about 5 to 15 degrees away from your body. This is the normal “carrying angle” of the elbow.
  • This angle allows your forearms to clear your hips when you swing your arms, such as during walking.

QUADRATUS LUMBORUM:

  • The quadratus lumborum contributes to the stabilization and movement of the spine and the pelvis.
  • A bilateral contraction leads to an extension of the lumbar vertebral column. When the muscle is only activated on one side, the trunk is bent towards that direction (lateral flexion).

CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
M.P.T.,MIAP.,PGDYN
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.

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