The immune system defends the body against infections and certain other diseases. It is made up of different organs, cells, and proteins known as antibodies. It identifies, attacks, and destroys germs and other foreign substances. A cell called a B lymphocyte develops into a plasma cell, which produces antibodies to fight off such invaders.
Tetanus, also called lockjaw, is a serious infection caused by Clostridium tetani; this bacterium produces a toxin that affects the brain and nervous system, leading to stiffness in the muscles. The bacteria exist in soil, manure, and other environmental agents. The infection can cause severe muscle spasms, serious breathing difficulties, and can ultimately be fatal. The early symptoms of tetanus include diarrhea, fever, and headache. The best way to protect against tetanus is to take the vaccine.
RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE:
Restrictive lung disease cannot fully fill their lungs with air. Their lungs are restricted from fully expanding. Presences of weak muscles, stiffness of the chest wall, or damaged nerves may cause the restriction in lung expansion.
Some conditions causing restrictive lung disease are:
- Interstitial lung disease, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- Sarcoidosis, an autoimmune disease
- Obesity, including obesity hypoventilation syndrome
- Neuromuscular disease, such as muscular dystrophy or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
The symptoms of restrictive lung disease include:
- shortness of breath
- chest pain
Obesity is a condition where a person has accumulated so much body fat that it might have a negative effect on their health. If a person’s bodyweight is at least 20% higher than it should be, he or she is considered obese. If your Body Mass Index (BMI) is between 25 and 29.9 you are considered overweight. If your BMI is 30 or over you are considered obese.
Alzheimer’s is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. Symptoms usually develop slowly and get worse over time. The greatest known risk factor is increasing age, and the majority of people with Alzheimer’s are 65 and older. But Alzheimer’s is not just a disease of old age.
Other symptoms including:
- Trouble focusing
- A hard time doing ordinary activities
- Feeling confused or frustrated, especially at night
- Dramatic mood swings — outbursts of anger, anxiety, and depression
- Feeling disoriented and getting lost easily
- Physical problems, such as an odd walk or poor coordination
- Trouble communicating.
Transverse Myelitis (TM) is a disorder caused by inflammation of the spinal cord. It is characterized by symptoms and signs of neurologic dysfunction in motor and sensory tracts on both sides of the spinal cord. The involvement of motor and sensory control pathways frequently produce altered sensation, weakness and sometimes urinary or bowel dysfunction.
There are four classic symptoms of transverse myelitis:
- weakness in the arms/legs
- sensory symptoms such as numbness or tingling
- pain and discomfort
- bladder dysfunction and/or bowel motility problems.
BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA:
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is probably a normal part of the aging process in men, caused by changes in hormone balance and in cell growth. Untreated, prostate gland enlargement can block the flow of urine out of the bladder and cause bladder, urinary tract or kidney problems.
An increased susceptibility to bleeding due to a coagulation defect, which can be genetic (e.g., Haemophilia, Glanzmann disease, von Willebrand disease) or acquired (e.g., scurvy, vitamin-K deficiency, leukaemia).
CAUSES OF BLEEDING DIATHESIS:
- Acquired causes
- Genetic causes
- Autoimmune causes
The formation or presence of a blood clot in a blood vessel. The vessel may be any vein or artery as, in a deep vein thrombosis or a coronary (artery) thrombosis. The clot itself is termed a thrombus.
If the clot breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream, it is a thromboembolism.
CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSCIAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST