Pasteurisation is a process that slows down microbial growth in food. The aim of pasteurization is not to completely destroy all pathogenic micro-organisms in foods typically in milk & milk products. Just to reduce the number of viable pathogens so that they are unable to cause disease if the pasteurized product is stored as indicated and consumed before its expiry date.


Bacterial vaccines contain killed or attenuated bacteria that activate the immune system. Antibodies are built against that particular bacteria, and prevents bacterial infection later.


Cholera Vaccine- Vibrio Cholerae

Diphtheria And Tetanus Toxoids And Pertussis Vaccine DTP Vaccine: A Combination Of Diphtheria And Tetanus.

Haemophilus B Conjugate Vaccine (Hbcv) A Preparation Of Haemophilus Influenzae

Haemophilus B Polysaccharide Vaccine (Hbpv)

Hepatitis A Vaccine Inactivated

Hepatitis B Vaccine

Measles, Mumps, And Rubella Virus Vaccine Live (MMR)

Pneumococcal Heptavalent Conjugate Vaccine

3.Lab diagnosis of UTI:

  • Dip sticks
  • Urine microscopy
  • Immersion culture media


  •  Burning sensation or discomfort when passing urine
  •  Detection of leukocytes
  •   Any detection of nitrite.

An alternative, the following point system may be used:

  • Nitrite positive = 2
  • Leukocytes positive = 1.5
  • Hematuria = 1
  • Moderately severe dysuria = 1
  • Moderately severe nocturia = 0.5

This gives sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 74%.

4.Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli OR ETEC:

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli), or ETEC, is an important cause of bacterial diarrheal illness. Infection with ETEC is the leading cause of travelers’ diarrhea and a major cause of diarrheal disease in lower-income countries, especially among children.

ETEC is transmitted by food or water contaminated with animal or human feces. Infection can be prevented by avoiding or safely preparing foods and beverages that could be contaminated with the bacteria, as well as washing hands with soap frequently.

5. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC):

enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) belong to clones of zoonotic E. coli of different O serogroups. These serogroups have evolved and acquired specific virulence factors that enable the bacteria to colonize and infect the human colon, usually without invasion of the blood stream. Once they have been ingested, STEC/VTEC/EHEC cause bloody diarrhea (BD), severe colitis These bacteria are known as EHEC when infection is associated with severe colonic and/or renal disease.

(STEC) –Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli

(VTEC)-verotoxigenic E. coli

6.Widal test:

A test of blood serum that uses an agglutination reaction to diagnose typhoid fever. Atest for detecting typhoid fever and other salmonella infections.

The Widal test is positive

  1. if “O” antigen titer is ——>  >1:160 = active infection.
  2. “H” antigen titer is ——> >1:160, indicate past infection or in immunized persons.
  3. Fourfold increase in the titer (e.g., from 1:40 to 1:160) is diagnostic.


Wound is a breach in the skin and the exposure of subcutaneous tissue following loss of skin integrity caused by trauma, surgery, burns, ulcers, fistulas, sinuses etc. Wound infection can be either community- acquired or nosocomial in origin.

Sample Collection :

  • 1ncision and drainage
  • Needle aspiration
  • Wound swabbing
  • Wound biopsy. Blood for culture may be positive, in case of systemic spread of infection.

8.Hospital Acquired UTI:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common hospital-acquired infection, accounting for 40% of all hospital-acquired infections. More than 80% of these infections are attributable to use of an indwelling urethral catheter.

Catheter-acquired urinary infections (cUTIs) have received significantly less infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and bacteremia.


Standard Precautions (formerly referred to as Universal Precautions): used during interaction with all patients regardless of their diagnosis or presumed infection status.

  • Hand-washing
  • Gloves
  • Protective eyewear and masks should be worn to protect mucous membranes of the mouth, nose and eyes whenever there is a risk of a splash or spray of blood or body fluids. This includes but is not limited to the performance of the following procedures: suctioning, nail clipping, wound irrigation and dental work.
  • Gown
  • Non-sterile gowns should be worn when splashes, sprays, or spills of blood or bodily fluids are likely to come into contact with the caregiver’s body or clothes. Remove soiled gown as promptly as possible and wash hands.
  • Patient care equipment
  • Handle soiled patient care equipment in a manner to prevent, skin and mucous membrane exposure, contamination of clothing, and transfer of microorganisms to other patients and environments. Do not reuse patient care equipment until it has been cleaned and reprocessed appropriately (see 3e). Discard single use items properly.
  • Environmental control
  • Please see separate policy on maintenance of clinical areas regarding cleaning and disinfecting, restocking, disposing of outdated materials, equipment maintenance/inspection, separation of clean and dirty items and medical infectious waste disposal.
  • Linen
  • All clean linen is to be kept covered. All used linen is to be handled with gloves and deposited in the dirty linen area.
  • Clostridium difficile – all cleaning supplies are dedicated to infected patients and supplies are disposed of in biohazard bags. No sponges are used.


By drcathyhappy2serve

Hi. My name’s Cathy.And I’m glad to see you here. Here’s what you really need to know about me:I am a big fan of Body and Health. I love to learn about it. I love to grow in it. And I love to help others develop as Healthy Human.. And… I’m not a fan of technology. So a Web-Site might seem like an odd fit for me. So why am I here online? Because you are. For many years I’ve been able to help People through Consultation at Clinic, Conference at public, as a trainer Fitness Centre , and as articles in books. But in this 21st Century, more and more people are searching for resources on the Internet. So it’s time for me to bring my material to the world of computers. I hope to provide you with Physical Fitness teaching that is both timeless and timely. I’ll let you in on my book writing process. I’ll tell you what I’m reading. And occasionally, I’ll tell you what I think about what’s currently happening in the world of Physical Fitness and Health Conciousness — around the world. My hope is that what you find here will add value to your life and give you the tools to achieve your goals as a Healthy Human Being.


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