- Carbohydrates are present in food in the form of starch, sugar and fiber.
- A carbohydrate is a molecule containing carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, and can be either simple or complex.
- Monosaccharides are a single sugar molecule, while disaccharides are two simple sugar molecules linked together.
- More complex carbohydrates are called polysaccharides and are multiple sugar molecules linked together.
- Carbohydrates are primary energy producers.
- The two main forms of carbohydrates are: sugars such as fructose, glucose, and lactose. Starches, which are found in foods such as starchy vegetables (like potatoes or corn), grains, rice, breads, and cereals.
- The definition of a protein is a substance that has amino acids, compounds and carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur and is found in many foods.
- They do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs.
- Proteins are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids, which are attached to one another in long chains.
- Fats are also known as triglycerides, molecules made from the combination of one molecule of glycerol with three fatty acids.
- The body uses fat as a fuel source, and fat is the major storage form of energy in the body. Fat also has many other important functions in the body.
- Fats are a subgroup of compounds known as lipids that are found in the body and have the general property of being hydrophobic.
FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS:
- A vitamin that can dissolve in fats and oils.
- Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed along with fats in the diet and can be stored in the body’s fatty tissue.
- Vitamins A, D, E, and K arefat-soluble.
- A viscid, watery fluid, secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands, that functions in the tasting, chewing, and swallowing of food, moistens the mouth, and starts the digestion of starches
- This lubricative function of saliva allows the food bolus to be passed easily from the mouth into the esophagus.
- Saliva contains the enzyme amylase, also called ptyalin, which is capable of breaking down starch into simpler sugars such as maltose and dextrin that can be further broken down in the small intestine.
- Defecation, also called bowel movement, the act of eliminating solid or semisolid waste materials (feces) from the digestive tract.
- The rectum shortens as material is forced into the anal canal and peristaltic waves push the feces out of the rectum.
- The internal and external anal sphincters along with the puborectalis muscle allow the feces to be passed by muscles pulling the anus up over the exiting feces.
WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS:
- A vitamin that can dissolve in water. Water-soluble vitamins are carried to the body’s tissues but are not stored in the body.
- Vitamin C and vitamin B complex are water-soluble.
- Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
- Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
- Niacin (Vitamin B3)
- Pantothenic Acid.
- Vitamin B6.
- Folic Acid.
- Vitamin B12.
- Peristalsis, involuntary movements of the longitudinal and circular muscles, primarily in the digestive tract but occasionally in other hollow tubes of the body, that occur in progressive wavelike contractions.
- Peristaltic waves occur in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
- The process of peristalsis begins in the esophagus when a bolus of food is swallowed.
- Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates.
- Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia).
- Insulin therefore helps cells to take in glucose to be used for energy.
- The pancreas releases glucagon when the concentration of insulin in the bloodstream falls too low.
- Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream.
- Pepsin is an endopeptidase that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides (that is, a protease).
- It is produced in the stomach and is one of the main digestive enzymes in the digestive system. where it helps digest the proteins in food.
- pepsin was the first revealed enzyme and also the first that was crystallized.
- Lactic acid is a normal byproduct of muscle metabolism, but it can irritate musclesand cause discomfort and soreness.
- Muscle soreness associated with exercise is known as delayed onset muscle soreness or DOMS.
- But lactic acid isn’t the only culprit in DOMS.
- The most common reason it happens is intense exercise.
CATHERINE SHALINI RAJA
CARDIO RESPIRATORY PHYSICAL THERAPIST
FITNESS & SPORTS REHABILITATION SPECIALIST.